A radiologist is a doctor who owns radiological (radioisotope) diagnostics and carries out radiation therapy for malignant and benign tumors.
The radiologist is engaged in the selection and conduct of the most gentle treatment methods, the preparation of a course of therapy, the adjustment of radiation doses, taking into account the total radiation load on the body. During the operation, he can also use internal ionizing radiation methods, placing his sources inside the tumor or nearby tissues. In addition, it performs non-contact, one-time irradiation of the tumor with an ultra-powerful dose of radiation that destroys all neoplasm cells, which are then disposed of in various ways.
The radiologist not only treats the tumor growth of various localizations, metastases, benign neoplasms, spurs, lymphogranulomatosis, lymphomas, hydradenitis, it helps diagnose:
- Pathology of the digestive system.
- Violations of the thyroid gland.
- Endometriosis, tumors and ovarian cysts.
- Prostate Disease
- Pathological changes in the functioning of the kidneys and urinary tract.
- Diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
- ENT pathology.
- Traumatic brain injuries, peripheral nerve diseases.
- Diseases of the bronchopulmonary tree.
- Congenital malformations.
- Joint pathology.
- Neoplasms and cysts of the liver.
A radiologist works closely with oncologists, mammologists, surgeons, chemotherapists, radiologists, and functional diagnosticians.
The radiologist profession combines the skills of a surgeon and therapist. But inside the specialty there is a narrow specialization of a radiotherapist, whose competence is only for therapeutic measures for diagnosis and treatment, especially complications after radiosurgery.
Radiobiology diagnoses cancerous tumors and also develops radiation protection methods.
Radiology leads its history with the discovery of P. Curie radioactivity. But, in fact, it owes its birth to three great discoveries: X-rays (K. Roentgen, 1895), natural radioactivity (1896, A. Becquerel), and radioactivity of polonium and radium (Curie couple, 1898). The monster bombardment of Hiroshima and Nagasaki became the stimulus for its development.
In Russia, N. Tarkhanova is considered the founder of radiology, who immediately after the discovery of x-rays showed how they affect a living organism. The pioneer of science was E. London and V. Vernadsky, who studied the effects of radiation and isotopes on animals (1911). After 16 years, radiation genetics appeared, and another three years later - radiation selection. This made it possible to study in detail the effect of radiation on the cells of a living organism, to determine the minimum reasonable and maximum permissible doses when developing methods of radiation therapy.
The accumulated material made it possible to study the decay of tumors under the influence of radiation and to understand the pathogenesis of radiation sickness. Back in 1921, a radium preparation was obtained from domestic raw materials (V. Khlopin). On its basis, a method for creating colloidal solutions and methods for their use in medical practice were developed. Since 1948, radioactive isotopes began to be widely used in treatment. In 1952, the Institute of Biophysics was opened in the country.
Today, radiobiology is developing in the direction of finding the most optimal and gentle methods for diagnosing and treating tumors, creating DNA technologies, and a model of an irradiated cell that is resistant to cancer. New radiation protection methods are being developed.
A narrow specialist diagnoses and treats complications after radiosurgery.
Responsibilities of the radiologist
The main responsibilities of the radiologist are as follows:
- Diagnosis and therapy of tumor processes.
- The appointment of drugs that alleviate the patient's condition during therapy.
- Rehabilitation after a course of therapy.
- Logging of total radiation doses. Monitoring of traffic rules (maximum permissible dose of radiation) and total radiation.
- Information support for patients throughout the course of treatment and rehabilitation.
- Monitoring security measures and the state of radio equipment.
- Registration of primary documentation.
Basic requirements for a radiologist include:
- Higher medical education, current accreditation card for radiology.
- Skills of outpatient treatment and diagnostic procedures: ultrasound, CT, MSCT, MRI, radiography, including contrast option, fluoroscopy, digital FLG, cardio-ultrasound, endoscopy of the bronchi, urethra, kidneys, rectum, thoracoscopy, angiography.
- The ability to inject radioisotopes: iodine and strontium into the patient’s body through the mouth or mouth to systemically examine the body and decipher the results.
- PC ownership and ability to work in a single information system.
The profession combines the skills of a surgeon and therapist.
How to become a radiologist
To become a radiologist, you must:
- Graduate from a university or medical school with a degree in General Medicine or Pediatrics.
- Get an accreditation sheet. To do this, you need to pass an exam and successfully pass an interview with an expert commission.
- After that, you can work with patients on an outpatient basis (for example, a therapist or pediatrician).
- To obtain a narrow specialization, you can enter the residency (2 years of study) in the specialty "Radiology". Paid easierbecause the competition is small and for admission you need to have only 50 certification points. Is free You can get into residency in two ways: by competition on a common basis or by the target direction of the chief physician of a medical organization in which the specialist is already working.
Every year, doctors are required to score 50 certification points. To do this, you can take advanced training courses (36 points), attend scientific and practical conferences (the number of points depends on the event, but usually about 10 points), publish scientific papers, write books, defend dissertations. If you have enough points, then you can continue to work. If points are not scored, then you will either have to stop medical practice, or solve this problem in “non-standard” ways.
The experience, skill and quality of a doctor’s work are generally evaluated qualification categoriesthat can be obtained by defending research work. During the defense, the commission evaluates the doctor's skills in the field of diagnosis, treatment, prevention, as well as the relevance of his knowledge.
What are the qualification categories:
- the second - over 3 years of experience,
- the first - more than 7 years of experience,
- the highest - more than 10 years of experience.
The qualification category allows you to occupy high positions in medical institutions, gives the right to a salary supplement, gives status in a professional environment and high trust on the part of patients. Even greater respect can be achieved by speaking at conferences, symposia and creating scientific articles and works.
The doctor has the right not to qualify, but this will impede his career and professional growth.
The general income range is as follows: radiologists earn from 29,000 to 160,000 rubles a month. The largest number of vacancies in the Moscow and Magadan region. We found the minimum salary at the radiologist in the Murmansk Region - 29,000 rubles per month, the maximum was found in Moscow - 160,000 rubles per month.
The average salary of a radiologist is 44,000 rubles per month.
What is the competence of the radiologist
The radiologist provides qualified medical care to patients, uses only the radiological equipment authorized by official medicine for diagnosis and treatment.
A radiologist is most often involved in a comprehensive examination of patients, but can also issue independent conclusions.
The radiologist is involved not only in the examination of the patient, but also in the development of a plan for his treatment. It is he who selects the optimal and gentle methods of treatment by radiation therapy.
A radiologist necessarily monitors the necessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and monitors how radiological equipment and instruments are used.
Doctors who work closely with radiologists are chemotherapists, oncologists, and cancer surgeons.
When they turn to radiologists
The main patients of radiologists are people exposed and suffering from its effects.
In second place are appeals to radiologists regarding the confirmation of the following diagnoses:
- various types of benign and malignant tumors of the skin, mammary glands, genitals, gastrointestinal tract, lungs and bronchi, oral cavity, larynx, brain and other organs,
- tenosynovitis and bursitis,
- cancer metastases,
- lymphoma, lymphogranulomatosis.
How to become a radiologist
To become a radiologist, it is necessary to graduate from a higher educational medical institution, to be trained in the specialty "radiology".
Often, radiologists and radiologists are trained together in the same department of the institution, but the latter have a wider area of activity.
A radiologist should be aware of modern diagnostic methods, the features of the radiological service, be aware of what constitutes radiology as a clinical discipline.
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The difference between a radiologist and a laboratory assistant
|It works independently, is responsible for the result of research||Works under the guidance of a radiologist.|
|Performs fluorography, radiography or tomography||Takes pictures on his own only at the direction of the doctor and under his supervision|
|Works with equipment of varying difficulty||Responsible for the condition of the equipment of the X-ray room|
|Carries out preventive examinations||Fills professional review magazines|
|Decrypts X-rays||It shows x-rays, prepares for the doctor|
|Supervises medical records||Maintains primary medical records|
|Monitors the patient's readiness for research||Prepares the patient for research|
Helical comminuted fracture of the upper third of the humerus with displacement of fragments
Duties of the radiologist
The main responsibilities of the radiologist are as follows:
- Hardware-based diagnosis of diseases and injuries in patients of any age (children under 14 years of age for health reasons).
- Conducting fluorography (18+), mammography, including at professional examinations and during medical examination.
- Making conclusions on research.
- Ensuring patient safety during x-ray examination, prevention of radiation overdose.
- Emergency assistance during research (allergy to a contrast medium, electrical injury).
- Monitoring the work of a laboratory assistant and interaction with an X-ray technician.
The main requirements for a radiologist are as follows:
- Higher medical education, current certificate in radiology.
- Experience in describing x-ray studies.
- Computer skills.
- Work experience in the specialty is welcome.
Sometimes CT scan skills and experience in describing children's pictures are required.
How to become a radiologist
To become a radiologist, you need:
- To graduate from a university with a degree in General Medicine or Pediatrics.
- Get an accreditation sheet with a diploma by passing tests, exam and passing an interview with a special commission consisting of doctors of sciences and professors. This will give the right to work independently at an outpatient or outpatient appointment.
- It is mandatory to work out a year in a polyclinic or an outpatient clinic, and then enroll in a residency (2 years) majoring in radiology.
In the process of work, doctors are awarded qualification points confirming accreditation: for carrying out complex manipulations, participating in scientific and practical conferences and seminars, for publishing scientific articles, books, and defending a dissertation. Every 5 years, these points are summed up and evaluated by the accreditation commission. If you have accumulated a sufficient number of points, then the next five years you can work in your specialty further. In the absence of a sufficient number of points, the doctor loses the right to treat. Read more about accreditation and cancellation of internships.
The increase in the professionalism, level of knowledge and experience of the doctor is usually reflected qualification category. All categories are assigned by the qualification commission in the presence of the doctor himself, on the basis of his written research work containing a description of skills and knowledge. Assignment Dates:
- more than 3 years of experience - the second category,
- more than 7 years - the first,
- more than 10 years - the highest.
The doctor has the right not to qualify, but for career growth this will be a minus.
Also, career and professional growth are promoted by scientific activity - writing of candidate and doctoral dissertations, publications in medical journals, speeches at conferences and congresses.
The spread of income is great: radiologists earn from 12 to 130 thousand rubles a month. Radiologists in the Moscow, Leningrad and Sverdlovsk regions, as well as the Krasnodar and Primorsky Territories are most in demand and highly paid. We found the largest salary at Med Art in Yaroslavl - 130,000 rubles per month, the minimum salary from radiologists at a military hospital in Ulyanovsk - 12,000 rubles per month.
The average salary of a radiologist in the Russian Federation is in the region of 23,000 rubles per month.
Where to get training
In addition to higher education, there are a number of short-term studies on the market lasting, as a rule, from a week to a year.
Modern Scientific and Technical Academy (SNTA) and a number of its courses in the field of "X-ray".
The Interregional Academy of Continuing Professional Education (MADPO) teaches on specialization "Radiology" and issues a diploma and certificate.
Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen (Roentgen) in 1895 discovered previously unknown radiation, and called it X-radiation. These were electromagnetic waves, subsequently named after him.
The rays are able to pass through the body without distorting: without refraction, reflection, diffraction, etc. But at the same time, they are absorbed by tissues in different ways, which makes it possible to take pictures of internal organs.
Various x-ray machines are used not only in medicine. For example, tomographs are sometimes used in restoration to study statues for internal damage, X-rays show through hand luggage at the airport, etc. But the ability to see with the help of equipment what is hidden from the eyes does not yet turn the restorer or customs officer into a radiologist.
X-ray studies the effects of x-rays on the body and uses them for diagnosis (x-ray diagnostics) and treatment (x-ray therapy).
Radiologist engaged in diagnostics. X-ray therapy is already the field of activity of another doctor - a radiotherapist (radiotherapist).
The radiologist, having received the necessary images, describes them and makes his medical opinion on them. He is not a technician who can manage equipment (a technician can manage equipment), he is a medical consultant. The tactics of treatment depend on his correct or erroneous conclusions.
What about the bone: a fracture or a bruise? Why pain in the head: due to poor vascular function or is it a tumor? What happens in the inner ear? How does the gastrointestinal tract work? And so on - the list of questions that radiologists deal with is endless.
However, a specialist cannot equally well understand all organ systems. Therefore, many radiologists specialize in a particular area. As the well-known Soviet specialist in radiation diagnostics S. A. Reinberg said, "the radiologist must be a clinician in the area where he undertakes the study." Therefore, specialists working in specialized medical centers and departments are so valued. And the radiologists themselves say that the experience of the attending physician greatly simplifies the work of the radiologist.
There are many methods of radiation diagnostics: radiography, fluoroscopy, tomography, etc. Tomography - This is the most advanced area of radiology. Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT) provide very detailed results: taking (scanning) any part of the body in layers, the tomograph produces its image “in section”. The tomograph data can be processed on a computer and saved images on a digital medium, while the images of a traditional x-ray unit are obtained only on a special (x-ray) film.
The most advanced radiation diagnostic method positron emission tomography (PET) is considered, which is very convenient in the early diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, heart. And also in oncology, as allows you to identify foci of malignant cells throughout the body. PET uses radioactive isotopes in minimal, harmless doses, but it doesn’t just take pictures of internal organs. The color images that she gives out show the activity of chemical processes in the body: with pathology, the color gamut and the intensity of the “picture” change, even if the disease has not yet announced itself.
Modern radiology is the knowledge of the doctor plus high technology. Unfortunately, Russian hospitals and clinics are still not sufficiently equipped with modern equipment. And the radiologist has to work on rapidly aging instruments. On the other hand, where equipment is installed, radiologists lack knowledge on its use. To overcome this dramatic contradiction, the efforts of the state alone are not enough, even if it is very good. Doctors themselves must constantly learn new things and improve their skills in courses. But even this at the current pace of progress is not enough.
G. G. Karmazanovsky (Head of the Department of Radiation Diagnostics at the A.V. Vishnevsky Institute of Surgery) assesses this situation as follows: “According to Murphy’s famous law, every five years the amount of information in the world doubles, so that you study on certification courses with a frequency of once every five years just doesn't make sense. Those who are seriously interested in their profession should regularly engage in self-education. ” You need to try to participate in professional conferences, attend exhibitions of medical equipment, read special literature, and not forget about the possibilities of online training. Without this, the profession of radiologist can be hopelessly behind.
The profession of radiologist is among the harmful. This is primarily due to x-ray radiation. Therefore, in radiation diagnostic rooms, radiation protection is used for personnel. All people working in such conditions have to monitor the radiation background in the room - does it comply with the "Radiation Safety Standards". In such offices, a x-ray laboratory assistant works directly with the doctor, who is in direct contact with the x-ray units. His work is even more harmful. Fortunately, the more modern the equipment, the safer it is.