MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus golden) is a causative agent of staphylococcal infection, which is transmitted through skin-to-skin contact. Usually this bacterium lives on the skin without causing any problems, but in some cases it can cause a serious infection process. With the penetration of MRSA through physiological barriers, diagnosis is necessary to diagnose MRSA infection. Read in the article which tests are used to diagnose MRSA.
To date, the main indications for this bacteriological study are:
- with the need to identify the causes of the inflammatory disease,
- with differentiation of infections in non-specific inflammatory diseases,
- with the determination of sensitivity to antibacterial drugs to ensure the effectiveness of their use,
- with preparation for surgery (to reduce the risk of postoperative complications).
An analysis of staphylococcus in adults and children, given two weeks after the last antibiotic intake, makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy and prevent the chronicity of inflammatory processes.
In most cases, tests for staphylococcus in children are necessary if the children often suffer from bronchitis or pneumonia: sputum is given for bacteriosis.
The pediatrician can prescribe an analysis for staphylococcus in the baby in case of acute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx or pharynx, as well as the intestines (with diarrhea of unknown etiology).
Against the background of all, tests are needed that are given to pregnant women when applying to the antenatal clinic for registration, an analysis for staphylococcus during pregnancy is done when there are problems with the bladder, vaginal discharge uncharacteristic for this condition appears, or the future mother had a history of inflammatory diseases staphylococcal origin.
To confirm the diagnosis, a sample of the patient’s biomaterial is placed in a Petri dish - on the culture medium (which is called sowing). It can be a liquid or gel that provides nutrition for bacterial growth. For S. aureus, a mixture of agar, mannitol and 7-9% sodium chloride solution is used. Then the plates are incubated overnight at + 37 ° C. After 48 hours, yellowing of the agar plate on one side and typical golden colonies of S. aureus are observed. They are necessarily stained with a Gram stain - to confirm that these are gram-positive cocci.
Next, specific tests are carried out for the diagnostic identification of clinical isolates - tests with urea, nitrates, catalase, coagulase. Positive reactions serve as biochemical evidence of the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the test sample.
The technique for staphylococcus analysis is quite complex, and the multi-stage process is associated with the need to differentiate it from similar microorganisms present in the studied biomaterial, and to determine whether this bacterial strain belongs to enterotoxigenic or non-toxic species.
In emergency situations, clinical laboratories conduct an express analysis for staphylococcus aureus by PCR (polymerase chain reaction), which helps to detect bacteria in real time and determine their number.
Staphylococcus Carriage Analysis
An analysis of staphylococcus sowing from the nasopharynx is very important: according to its results, the presence of bacteria S. aureus is most often detected, which do not manifest themselves in any way in a healthy person with strong immunity, but can pose a risk of infection for others. And the level of staphylococcal colonization among medical workers, dialysis patients and people with diabetes is higher than among the general population.
According to approximate data, 30-35% of adults and most children are periodically healthy carriers of S. aureus in the nasopharynx, but almost 15% of healthy adults are persistent carriers.
In the latter case, an analysis of staphylococcus for a medical book (sanitary book or special medical book - forms of primary accounting documentation No. 1-OMK) is required, which - by order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 559 of 23.05. 2001 - must have employees of certain professions (their list is attached). This is staphylococcus bacteriosis or staphylococcus S. aureus carriage analysis, for which a sample of nasal exudate (inoculation from the nose) or mucous secretion of the oropharynx (smear from the throat) is examined.
We specify the number of the order for testing for staphylococcus concerning prophylactic medical examination - this is the order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine No. 280 (dated July 23, 2002) “Organizing medical examination, medical examination, medical examination, medical examination I’m called for servicing the population and can lead to the expansion of infectious diseases. ”
How often to take an analysis for staphylococcus? Persons whose profession is associated with the possibility of the spread of bacteria are supposed to take it every six months (for some - once a year). For ordinary patients, the delivery of this analysis is prescribed by a doctor. In most cases, he tells where to get the test for staphylococcus: in the laboratory of the medical institution where the patient turned, or in a separate accredited laboratory.
, , , , , , , ,
What tests do you have for staphylococcus?
Depending on the localization of the pathology, symptoms of its manifestation and preliminary diagnosis for bacteriological research, such biomaterials can be taken as:
- smear from the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and pharynx,
- smear from the external mucous membrane of the eyeball (conjunctiva),
- sample of expectorated secretion (sputum),
- discharge from the ear canal,
- urine (the average portion of urine excreted after waking up in the morning),
- stool sample
- swab from the vagina (vaginal), from the cervical canal (cervical),
- smear from the anus (rectal),
- discharge from the wound (purulent exudate),
- a sample of breast milk from a lactating mother.
A blood test for staphylococcus (which is taken in the laboratory or in the hospital room of patients before antibiotic treatment is started), involves a subsequent tank sowing its sample on the culture medium with a microscopic examination. Moreover, for greater accuracy in determining the infectious agent, a repeated analysis for staphylococcus is often performed.
The presence of staphylococci in the blood of persistent carriers can be determined by significantly higher titers of antistaphylococcal serum antibodies detected by two-stage protein deposition or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
In severe forms of acne or folliculitis, staphylococcus on the face may be required (a smear is taken from the elements of the rash), and for diffuse furunculosis - to determine the tactics of treatment - dermatologists can prescribe a skin test for staphylococcus.
How to pass an analysis on staphylococcus?
Urinalysis, analysis of feces for staphylococcus, as well as analysis of breast milk for staphylococcus aureus, are collected in sterilized dry containers with a lid (for milk, two containers are required - separately for each mammary gland).
Preparation for the delivery of feces consists in performing the necessary hygienic procedures and stopping the use of a laxative or probiotic (if any) for at least three days. Two days before the delivery of urine, diuretics cease to be taken.
Can be taken directly in the laboratory: sputum analysis, analysis of the pharynx, throat and nose for staphylococcus aureus. At the same time, a throat swab is done no earlier than 4 hours after eating, before a swab from the throat, they do not drink or eat food for two hours, before a swab from the nose they do not wash it and do not bury it for three hours. And 10 hours before giving up sputum, you should drink a couple of extra glasses of water.
It is clear how staphylococcus analysis is taken - vaginal or rectal smears: this is the competence of the profile doctor who appoints the analysis, who takes the biomaterial and transfers the correspondingly packaged images to the laboratory.
It is difficult to say exactly how much staphylococcus analysis is done: clear instructions for the regulation of the microbiological studies of each sample are available only in laboratories.
Decoding analysis for staphylococcus
The standard decoding of the analysis for staphylococcus contains information on the number of bacteria and their growth. If an increase in their colonies is detected, this is a positive analysis for staphylococcus, and when there is no active growth, a negative analysis for staphylococcus.
In this case, normal indicators of the number of microorganisms correspond to CFU (colony forming units) in one milliliter of the studied biomaterial less than 102-103 CFU / ml, that is, when 10 2 -10 3 (100-1000) colony forming units were counted in one milliliter of the studied biomaterial.
Carriage of S.aureus is recognized at 103-104 CFU / ml, and to identify the cause of the inflammatory disease, a significant indicator is ≥ 105 CFU / ml.
The epidemic danger is the presence of 10 million microbial bodies of Staphylococcus aureus in 1 ml of nasal exudate.
Is staphylococcus analysis wrong? It happens, since this bacterium is usually present on the skin and mucous membranes, and the analysis is not always confirmed.
One of the problems that can interfere with obtaining a reliable result is the insufficient level of sterility of laboratory equipment during inoculation (introduction of the taken biomaterial into the nutrient medium). The slightest doubt as a result forces laboratory specialists to re-test for staphylococcus aureus.
How to fool an analysis for staph? Thoroughly rinse the nasal passages before a nasal swab, and if there is a throat swab, rinse the throat several times with an antiseptic.
, , , , , , , , ,
How does staph appear in the bloodstream?
On the skin and mucous membranes of humans, scientists found 14 varieties of staphylococci. These are round bacteria (cocci), uniting in colony clusters (staphyle - bunch). Most of them completely safe for people, but three varieties are conditionally pathogenic - with an unsuccessful combination of circumstances, they can cause diseases.
Pathogenic types of staphylococci:
- Staphylococcus aureus.
The first variety is relatively harmless, its main advantage is that it is practically does not affect newbornsfor which staphylococcus is most dangerous. Saprophytic staphylococcus is the culprit of many diseases of the female genitourinary sphere, since its habitat is located here.
Epidermal staphylococcus can be found on all surfaces of the human body, although, despite the name (epidermis - skin), the bacterium never leads to superficial lesions. But in the case of infection of internal implants (vessels, joints, valves and others), the causative agent is almost always the culprit.
Staphylococcus aureus is not dangerous on the surface of the skin or mucous membrane - it penetrates into the body through various skin lesions: wounds, surgical sutures, microtrauma, umbilical wound of newborns, catheter insertion sites and many others.
Once in the blood, the pathogen can either cause a severe general infection - sepsis or blood poisoning, or penetrate into any tissues and organs of the body, causing symptoms of certain infections.
The symptoms of intestinal infection with staphylococcus can be found in the article http://otparazitoff.ru/stafilokokk/zolotistyiy-v-kishechnike.html
Most people are constantly or periodically carriers of Staphylococcus aureus, the bacterium retains the ability to infect in the environment for a long time, especially on dust particles.
Staphylococcus aureus is resistant to various antiseptics and disinfection methods:
- not afraid of alcohol, can decompose hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and oxygen atoms and absorb the latter,
- him hard to kill boiling
- long time does not perish in direct sunlight
- feeling fine in concentrated saline solutionstherefore, he does not care about the natural antibacterial protection of the human body - sweat.
What threatens the pathogen to enter the bloodstream?
Staphylococcus aureus has many features that make it dangerous, the main among them are pathogenicity factors. Without them, any pathogen is nothing more than a tiny microorganism that does not have special properties. Pathogenicity factors determine the damage that a bacterium can cause to the body.
If diphtheria bacillus with only one toxin in the arsenal is capable of causing a sufficiently insidious disease, what can we say about Staphylococcus aureus, at the disposal of which about ten different toxins, and besides them:
- hemolysins - substances that can damage blood cells and a number of other cells,
- microcapsule and cell wall inhibit the phagocytic activity of the immune system, facilitating staphylococcus distribution throughout the body,
- Ra variety of enzymes, each of which performs its own task, for example, reduce blood coagulation, disrupt its normal circulation, causing oxygen starvation of tissues, destroy various cells.
Each element of a tiny stationary ball, which, in essence, is Staphylococcus aureus, each chemical reaction that proceeds in it is aimed at causing maximum damage to the infected body.
However, Staphylococcus aureus is extremely dangerous for people with weakened immune systems, including premature babies, newborns with various pathologies, elderly people, patients weakened as a result of other diseases that have undergone organ transplantation, and so on. In the United States alone, over one hundred thousand infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are recorded annually, of which many are fatal.
Types of bacteria detection tests
I have been engaged in the detection and treatment of parasites for many years. I can say with confidence that almost everyone is infected with parasites. Simply, most of them are extremely difficult to detect. They can be anywhere - in the blood, intestines, lungs, heart, brain. Parasites literally devour you from the inside, at the same time poisoning the body. As a result, there are numerous health problems that shorten life by 15-25 years.
The main mistake is tightening! The sooner you begin to remove parasites, the better. If we talk about drugs, then everything is problematic. To date, there is only one truly effective antiparasitic complex, this is Toximin. It destroys and sweeps out of the body all known parasites - from the brain and heart to the liver and intestines. None of the existing drugs are capable of this anymore.
As part of the federal program, when applying until October 12th. (inclusive) each resident of the Russian Federation and the CIS can receive one package of Toximin IS FREE!
Staphylococcus aureus is a pyogenic bacterium, that is, it causes purulent inflammatory processes. Pus formed as a result of staphylococcal infection is examined under a microscope or seeded to study the bacteriological picture.
Depending on the specific disease, blood, sputum, feces and other secretions are subjected to bacteriological examination. First, a pure culture of the bacteria is determined, then a specific strain. In Staphylococcus aureus, the presence of certain pathogenicity factors is determined.
There is research to determine the source and distribution of staphylococcal infection - phagotyping. The same technique allows you to choose drugs (antibiotics or bacteriophages) for the selected variety of Staphylococcus aureus.
When phagotyping the selected pathogen is placed in several cups with a nutrient medium. Substances are added to each container, the sensitivity of which must be determined.
In the cup, where there is a substance (phage), to which Staphylococcus aureus is sensitive, the bacterial membrane will collapse, and sterile areas will appear in the container.
The most acceptable to date is the treatment of bacterial infections, including staphylococcal, with antibiotics.
General information about staph infections in the video:
Most effective and widely applicable beta lactams (Oxycillin, Methicillin and several others). The heavier weapons are cephalosporins. However, against methicillin-resistant strains, which have recently appeared more and more, the listed groups of drugs are not effective. In this case, the treatment is carried out using Vancomycin and fluoroquinolones.
In case of blood poisoning, the course of treatment in addition to antibiotics includes the introduction of immunoglobulin Ig with anti-staphylococcal effect. In chronic infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (the same sepsis, furunculosis and many others), it is necessary to increase the production of antitoxic and antimicrobial antibodies in the body. This is achieved by the introduction of toxoid and auto vaccines.
Superbacteria Super Treatment
Not a hundred years have passed since the discovery of antibiotics, and the World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that by 2020, humanity will remain alone with bacteria without antibiotic mediation. The reason is superbacteria.
These are special strains that have developed antimicrobial resistancewhich every year pharmaceutical science invents less and less. Bacteria are the oldest organisms on the planet whose adaptability to adverse conditions has been honed for millions of years.
The following conditions helped adapt to the bacteria:
- the selection of antibiotics by doctors by brute force, rather than using special tests,
- self-medication - the use by patients of antibiotics that are ineffective against the causative agents of their disease,
- incomplete course of treatment, when the patient stops taking the drug, the symptoms hardly disappear.
In each of these cases, bacteria survived, studied the substances used against them, and recorded changes in their own reactions at the chromosomal level. There are seven such bacteria that have managed to adapt to weapons developed against them, including Staphylococcus aureus.
While superbacteria are mainly found in hospitals, where there are two important conditions for them:
- preparationsthat can be studied
- people immunocompromised, on which it is easy to hone antimicrobial response strategies.
Scientists all over the world are working on developing new directions in the treatment of infections caused by super bacteria. Already, few are hoping for a breakthrough in the invention of antimicrobials. The main direction in which development is being carried out is immunobiological. It focuses on the use of bacteriophages - viruses that were discovered before antibiotics. These viruses naturally regulate the number of bacteria in the biosphere of the planet.
Description of Staphylococcus
Staphylococci are gram-positive round motionless bacteria that inhabit the mucous membranes and human skin
Staphylococci are a type of spherical and spherical bacteria that are classified as positive immobilized microorganisms. In relation to different types of organisms, their effects may be different.
For a person, staphylococcus is a conditionally pathogenic bacterium, that is, always living on his body. Depending on some biological characteristics, a staphylococcal bacterium can be completely pathogenic, which, when it enters the human body, will certainly cause a disease. In addition, these microorganisms are spread literally everywhere, therefore, “grabbing” their task is not difficult.
A number of predisposition factors (weakened immunity, stress, poor ecology, etc.) can significantly increase the risk of pathological activity of bacteria. In this case, if it enters the body, it can cause inflammation of any organ. Staphylococcus is often the culprit of skin diseases, nervous disorders, brain abscesses, heart problems, digestive system and so on. Staphylococcal bacteria are divided into a huge number of strains (varieties), so the microorganism that caused the same disease in different people can be of different biological forms.
The most common pathogenic staphylococci are: golden, epidermal, saprophytic and hemolytic.
Regardless of biological activity (pathogenic, non-pathogenic), these microorganisms are classified according to the degree of aggressiveness and pathogenic activity.
The main danger of staphylococci is their ability to produce enzymes and toxins that adversely affect the cells of the human body, disrupting the usual vital functions and destroying them. Due to such specific and dangerous properties, microorganisms can not only cause diseases, but also provoke various kinds of complications after ailments caused by other bacteria. In addition to everything, staphylococcus of any strain is extremely resistant to environmental influences and the action of antibiotics.
Causes and signs of infection
Staphylococci can cause various infectious diseases in humans
The main reason for the onset of the pathogenic effect of staphylococcus on a person is that when the body is weakened, infectious bacteria become activated and cause a number of diseases.
As noted earlier, there are a lot of strains (varieties) of these microorganisms, but among the causes of ailments in humans, there are 3 main ones:
- Saprophytic staphylococcus. A relatively harmless appearance, which mostly affects women, causing them diseases of the urethra (cystitis), kidneys and skin in the genital area.
- Epidermal staphylococcus. It lives in all mucous membranes and areas of the skin of the human body. Unrefined immunity completely copes with the pathogenic factors of the bacterium, but if the protective barrier is slightly worn out, then epidermal staphylococcus causes various ailments. Once in the blood, it can become a provocateur of inflammation of the endocardium (heart).
- Staphylococcus aureus. The most common and dangerous type of these infectious bacteria for humans. Such staphylococcus can cause inflammation of any organ or tissue, regardless of the person's age. It can be treated, but with great difficulty.
Staphylococcus is transmitted in various ways: contact, airborne, food and parenteral.
Staphylococcus can be detected by diagnosing a specific disease by taking tests. As a result of this, the symptoms of infection manifest in each case different (depending on the caused illness).
Staphylococcus causes such underlying diseases as:
- food poisoning
Important! Despite such a wide range of diseases caused by staphylococcus, there is a general (inherent in almost every ailment) clinical picture.
Common symptoms of staph infection:
- an increase in temperature, very often not general, but local, that is, in the area of an infected organ or tissue
- hyperemia - overflow of blood vessels in the affected area, due to its redness
- the appearance of swelling of tissues or organs affected by staphylococcal bacteria
- pain, again, in the area of affected tissue or organ
- impaired functioning of the affected area
- poor general health
With a maximum guarantee, staphylococcus is determined only by examination in the laboratory, and not by symptomatology.
How to identify staphylococcus - types of tests
For the diagnosis of staph infection, a microbiological study of biomaterial
If you suspect a staph infection, you must pass a certain analysis, which is often prescribed by a doctor. Having discovered in time that staphylococcus is the cause of some ailment, the treatment of the disease will be more effective and complications can be avoided.
Each individual case requires a certain type of analysis. The main ones are:
- delivery of feces or urine
- breast milk collection
- mucosal swabs
- collection of blood, purulent masses, departments from the ears
For each type of analysis, proper preparation is required.
- excretion of feces should not be triggered by laxatives, the whole process is natural
- feces are placed in a special container, it is advisable to scald it with boiling water before placing
- collection of biomaterial is carried out from a clean surface (paper, polyethylene), from the toilet - not desirable
- you need to take feces with a special spoon and fill the container at least 1/3 part
- before urinating, the genitals should be washed with running water
- collection must not be carried out from the first jet, but wait a little
- the container must first be scalded with boiling water
- the tank is filled to the middle
Breast milk collection:
- milk must be decanted, after thoroughly washing your hands with soap
- before the nipple process, it is important to treat with a 70% alcohol solution, for each - take a separate swab
- the first 15 ml of milk are decanted into a separate bowl, the subsequent biomaterial is analyzed
- the container is scalded with boiling water beforehand; during the collection of milk it is impossible to touch the walls of the dishes
- milk from each nipple is given in a separate bowl
Important! Other types of tests are collected and handed over only in the laboratory and under the supervision of a doctor.
More information about Staphylococcus aureus can be found in the video:
Preparation for events includes the following measures:
- 48 hours before the test, it is important to stop taking diuretics and antibiotics
- if biomaterial is collected, it is necessary to wait 3-4 hours between stools
- you can not take tests for women during menstruation and 2 days before and after them
- before collecting feces, it is necessary to stop therapy with laxatives and rectal suppositories in 2-3 days
- the day before analysis, you can not expose the body to serious physical and stress
- a number of tests need to be taken on an empty stomach
- drinking alcohol the day before the event is not advisable
Important! Failure to comply with the preparatory measures entails the receipt of unreliable analysis results.
Staphylococcus Treatment Methods
In order to cure a staph infection, a competent selection of antibacterial agents is necessary
Different methods of treatment are used depending on the disease caused by staphylococcal infection.
Local and not serious ailments are treated under the supervision of a doctor at home, in more severe cases hospitalization is possible.
The basis of therapy may be:
- Reception of antibacterial agents. Depending on the results of the analysis, antibiotics of various strengths are prescribed to the patient. Most often, such drugs as Ampioks, Amoksiklav, Gentamicin and Cefepim are used to treat staphylococcus. You can take such medications and, in principle, antibacterial agents only under the supervision of a doctor, otherwise there is a serious risk of aggravating the well-being of the patient.
- Bacteriophagic therapy. This type of treatment is based on the introduction of special neutralizing bacteria - bacteriophages into the affected area. After completing the mission, they die.
- Immunostimulation It is aimed at enhancing the protective functions of the body. Drugs used for immunostimulation: Timogen, Amiksin and others.
- Surgical measures. They are applicable in case of abscesses and boils, due to the action of staphylococci.
- Ethnoscience. Supplements the effect of the main drug treatment. The choice of folk remedies depends on the specifics of the disease.
Effective and safe treatment of staphylococcal infection is possible only under the supervision of a specialist. In general, it is quite simple to identify and treat staphylococcus. The main thing is that he attentively refers to his state of health and, at the slightest suspicion of infection, conduct tests.