How to read newspapers
Newspapers occupy an important place in the modern world. In our opinion, every student should read two or three newspapers daily. “Where to get so much time,” you say. Of course, if you read every newspaper an hour and a half, there will not be enough time. Newspapers must be able to read quickly and even very quickly.
The famous Soviet researcher in the field of psycholinguistics I.N. Gorelov gives such recommendations.
Anyone who reads newspapers regularly can easily learn the rational method of speed reading, and it will take him 8 to 10 times less time to look at the band than another who is not familiar with this technique. Being aware of the events, the regular reader, firstly, does not decipher names, geographical names and many other newspaper terms. Secondly, he already has his own organized “data bank”, based on which he can deploy his anticipatory program about the possible development of events. Recall that we examined the phenomenon of anticipation in detail in the fourth conversation (p. 46). Thirdly, he can focus on the material that interests him more than others. But here everything is understood (no matter how new it may be) because there is a ready-made typology of situations, events, there is knowledge of the essence of the matter.
Experienced publicists, feuilletonists, authors of reporting strive to present their text in such a way that it gives the impression of a fresh and interesting. Of course, the fact that is reported may be interesting and fresh. But you can submit it in different ways, starting with the title. The Soviet scientist N. G. Elina examined the typology of headings and found that they can be orienting (what? Where? When?), Explanatory, clarifying (for what? For what purpose or for what reason?), Stating (what generally happened? ), etc. Among other groups, headings are disorienting or indefinitely orientating. For example, O. Henry's collection of short stories “Kings and Cabbage” is a typical disorienting headline, since under the cover the reader will not find any kings and no cabbage.
A heading of the type “5000 years” can be interesting, but the text says that some ruins of the ancient city, according to experts and archaeologists, cannot be dated by the date of occurrence indicated in the heading. It turns out that the original hypothesis was unfounded, but they actually excavated an abandoned structure of the last century, which has no value. Information would be of interest to those who previously knew about the hypothesis and about the excavations. But the journalist, who did not manage to submit the relevant material in a timely manner, did not want him to be lost, refuted. So an intriguing headline was invented. And who would read the information titled “Found a barn of the last century, not of interest”? According to reporters, it was better to call the information “Gross mistake of archaeologists”, because they like to read about other people's mistakes most of all. The text is interesting in that it can have a so-called subtext. But is this statement true? Reading “between the lines” is, of course, a metaphor. But then, where is the implication? We can agree with N. G. Edina, who believes that the subtext is in the reader, in his psyche, and only there. It seems that there are texts with no subtext: what is written should be understood, no more.
However, to understand the brief information, you need the necessary preliminary knowledge, which the author of the information implicates (does not express, but means) and which must be “animated” in the reader, if he had them.
Supporting knowledge that allows us to somehow understand the text is called a text.
As for the subtext, it differs from the subtext in that it not only helps to understand the text itself, but also hints that we should move away from the content of the text in some other direction, remember something parallel, similar.
Thus, when reading newspapers, the main focus should be on finding informative, that is, meaningful, texts for you.
Practice daily. The result of the training will be achieved when reading, for example, the newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda, will take you no more than 15 minutes.
HOW TO READ NEWSPAPERS CORRECTLY
Even before the expulsion from the USSR, the great Russian writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn highly appreciated the meaning of the word in the fight against the untruth of life and, in confirmation of his attitude to the problem, he led the Russian proverb: “One word will drag the whole world.” He speaks of the importance of a word, first of all, of a printed one, connecting it with the impending revival of Russia. I completely agree with him, and for the past 20 years I have been reading at least 6-8 newspapers daily. This gives me a fairly high awareness of all the ongoing processes in Russia and in the world. Perhaps I could compile a detailed chronicle, for example, about "how the great empire collapsed." And at the same time, this creates problems of newspaper blockages in the apartment, since there is not always time to immediately make clippings from newspapers and immediately throw out the unnecessary. As a result, stacks of newspapers accumulate, which every two to three months have to be viewed for the second time, select the necessary articles and throw them away. And the selected materials accumulate in folders and clutter up corners. Other newspaper reading enthusiasts also face similar problems - scientists, political scientists, professional critics, etc., in a word, all those who are used to making clippings and re-reading them periodically. One person from this “newspaper-reading” party admitted to me somehow that he felt how numerous clippings and piles of newspapers “drink his energy almost physically”. I also feel similar feelings, although I make these sacrifices for several reasons: 1) professional interests, 2) unwillingness to keep up with the times, 3) natural curiosity, 4) desire to maintain an intellectual form, 5) habit of exercising the mind. However, for those who depend on current information too much, no matter how much they read, listen or watch, I advise you to remember that an excess of information is as harmful as its lack.
In addition to the simplest method that avoids the unpleasant moments of the impact of a newspaper word and consists in not buying newspapers and not reading at all, there are several more effective methods of protection:
read the material selectively, skipping entire strips devoted to senseless entertainment, chernukha, relishing cruelties, in the majority read only the headings, running the material through the eyes diagonally and learning to understand what is written in this article, read newspapers of directly opposite political directions - and left, and right, and centrist, to see the same subject from different angles and thereby avoid the imbalance of consciousness that inevitably arises if for a long time a person listens only to one After reading, mentally erase all unnecessary information, leaving only the most important (check yourself, do you remember at least some articles or even ideas read several years ago, and you will see how little information exists in the field of, for example, politics, which is really important to you). You can make small abstract notes.
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What newspapers to write out?
THROUGHOUT THE UNION, it is unlikely that there will be at least one working guy who would not write out one or two newspapers. First of all, the question arises for the children, which newspaper should a young worker read? The guy will write out several newspapers, and Pravda, and the local provincial newspaper, and the local Komsomol, and Young Leninets, will be covered by newspapers, not reading any of them, or reading poorly, and as a result, only substantial deductions from the paycheck, and a bunch paper for wrapping breakfast.
What newspapers to write out? This question must be answered in different ways, depending on the political level and activity of the guy. If you have little knowledge, if you are just starting to study, do not chase the abundance of newspapers, write out one newspaper - best of all, the local Komsomol, and read it carefully. If you’re already used to the newspaper, you can figure it out, find something interesting for you, take a look at the local provincial newspaper. The activist must certainly read The Truth. Grassroots activist should read The Truth.
You must be able to read the newspaper
MANY, perhaps, it will seem ridiculous - how should one be able to read a newspaper? A competent person can read, what kind of special skill is required to read newspapers?
But the fact of the matter is that with skillful reading the newspaper can give a lot. Political consciousness, awareness of the struggle of the working class of other countries, the ability to understand what is happening around us, an understanding of these events, all this will give the newspaper, if you read it carefully and regularly. It is difficult to force yourself to do an important and useful work for which you do not have the skill, but if you have a certain habit, then the work is done easily and simply.
For clarity, one can cite an example: suppose you never brushed your teeth, one fine day you decide that brushing your teeth is very useful and hygienic, and proceed to this matter. Every morning, when you wake up, you need to remind yourself: “you need to brush your teeth”, but if you do this every day, you will have a cultural habit, and you will do it mechanically. Moreover, if for some reason you don’t brush your teeth and forget about it, then all day you will have an unpleasant feeling in your mouth, as if something is missing.
It’s such a habit that every one of us should create a daily newspaper. This is the cultural habit of a conscious citizen of his country. You should have a feeling of some emptiness on the day when the newspaper was not in your hands. This is the first condition.
What to read in the newspaper?
IF YOU write out 2 - 3 newspapers, then reading them in a row from board to board is not necessary, it is completely useless, even harmful. Always in all 3 newspapers you will find the general, for example, telegrams. You can read them in one of the newspapers, in the one in which they are presented in the language most understandable to you, but be sure to read them.
Reading telegrams every day, you can easily understand what is happening in the world around you. Moreover, an editorial (usually clarifying, summarizing facts obtained from telegrams) will be an empty phrase for you if you do not follow telegrams. And here, more than anywhere else, regularity is needed.
Sometimes a guy takes a newspaper, reads one or two telegrams and such boredom attacks him, such a fog becomes that the next time he carefully blocks his eye from telegram headlines. Here you just need to endure - one day it is not clear, another day, ask the more knowledgeable, read it with someone collectively, and there, look, an editorial appeared explaining the facts that you already know, and then it will go like clockwork. The main thing is to read it regularly, and then telegrams will be for you like a living political novel with endless sequels.
Letters of foreign correspondents may come to help telegrams. The combination of telegrams, letters and editorials will give you a clear picture of the political life of the world. Sometimes guys complain that telegrams are often contradictory, and it is difficult to understand anything in them. This inconsistency is apparent, and you yourself will easily learn to distinguish real facts if you fulfill the first condition - regularity in reading.
Telegrams must be read with fresh mind, as soon as you opened the newspaper and looked through its headings.
Now about the articles. You have a certain job in a cell, in a club, in a sponsored volost. Looking through the newspaper, you have to keep track of whether an article or note has appeared from the area of your work. This will help your work, push you to think it over, take only your piece of work out of the narrow circle, and teach you to generalize your experience. This is the first thing you need to look for among the article material, and then articles that are not directly related to your work, here, of course, it seems to you to choose what interests you. Questions of economy, education, party life, etc.
Feuilleton (an article written in living language, often with a humorous connotation) is read very easily, and it is not recommended to go past it in a newspaper. The feuilleton is somewhat entertaining, you will relax on the feuilleton and it is best to leave the feuilleton for a snack, after telegrams, for example.
Unfamiliar words and geography
UNKNOWN words are best handled as follows: write notes in a block and ask a friend who is knowledgeable about this, and if you have a dictionary, then look in the dictionary. But in no case do not leave unclear one or another meaning of an incomprehensible word to you. We have talked a lot and rightly about not cluttering up our newspapers with foreign words, replacing them with Russian, but there are a number of such concepts that are most accurately defined by a foreign word, and it is completely harmless to remember this word after recognizing its meaning.
A geographical map when reading newspapers, and especially telegrams, is an indispensable assistant. Much becomes clear in the relations between two states, if you have a map in front of you, you see where they are, in which neighborhood, what territory they occupy, etc. Our guys are not used to using the map, and in most cases maps hang on the walls of reading rooms, clubs, apparently, mainly for decoration. You must be able to handle the card, and if the guy is illiterate, then, of course, he will not see anything on the map, he will not figure it out.
In such cases, it is necessary to require that the leaders of the circles for uneducated, general education circles, devote several classes to acquaintance with the geographical map.