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How to use MS DOS

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MS-DOS stands for Disk Operating System. An operating system is a program that coordinates the actions of a computer; under its control, programs are executed. MS-DOS is an operating system located on disks. The developer of MS-DOS is Microsoft Corporation. Three main functions of the operating system: 1. Data exchange between a computer and various peripheral devices (terminals, printers, floppy disks, hard disks, etc.). This data exchange is called data input / output. 2. Providing a system for organizing and storing files. 3. Loading programs into memory and ensuring their execution. The MS-DOS operating system brilliantly copes with its responsibilities. In practice, one of the main advantages of using MS-DOS is the simplicity of its understanding, despite the functional complexity (that is, the system is designed to perform quite complex functions). In the absence of an operating system, the computer behaves like a wild untamed beast, strong and fast, not uncontrollable by humans. The operating system "curbs" its speed and strength, turns the energy of the machine into a tool useful to humans.

A brief history of the creation of MS-DOS.

The first development of MS-DOS can be considered the personal computer operating system created by Seattle Computer Products in 1980. At the end of 1980, the system, originally called QDOS, was modified and renamed to 86-DOS. The right to use the 86-DOS operating system was purchased by Microsoft Corporation, which concluded a contract with IBM, pledging to develop an operating system for a new model of personal computers manufactured by the company. When, at the end of 1981, the new IBM PC computer gained widespread popularity, its operating system was a modified version of the 86-DOS system, called PC-DOS, version 1.0. Shortly after the release of IBM-PC, personal computers "similar to PCs" began to appear on the market. The operating system of these computers was called MS-DOS, version 1.0. Microsoft has made available to companies that manufacture these machines an exact copy of the PC-DOS operating system, which is now widely used by MS-DOS. The only major difference between these systems was what is called the "system level". That is, for each machine it was necessary to buy its own operating system. Distinctive features of each system could be revealed only by a system programmer, whose duties included the work of "fitting" the operating system to a specific machine. The user working on different machines did not feel any difference between them. Since its launch, PC-DOS and MS-DOS have improved in parallel and in a similar way. In 1982, version 1.1 appeared. The main advantage of the new version was the ability to use double-sided diskettes (version 1.0 allowed to work only with single-sided diskettes), as well as the ability to send printer output to other devices. In 1983, version 2.0 was developed. Compared with the previous ones, they made it possible to use a hard disk, provided a sophisticated hierarchical directory of the disk, included built-in devices for floppy disks and a file management system. MS-DOS version 3.0, released in 1984, provided an improved service option for the hard drive and microcomputers connected to the computer. Subsequent versions, including 3.3 (which appeared in 1987), developed in the same direction. MS-DOS version 5.0 provides the ability to use memory located above 1M. In MS-DOS version 6.0, the possibilities of using memory located above 1M are expanded, the utility for optimizing the use of memory Memmaker is added. Added a tool to increase the effective disk space DoubleSpace. The scope of delivery includes ScanDisk and Defrag hard disk verification and optimization utilities. After litigation with Stack regarding copyright for DoubleSpace, the latter in MS DOS 6.22 has been replaced with DriveSpace.

Basic concepts

Example: kbr.sys - keyboard driver

directory (directory) - a group of files united by any criterion. All information stored in the PC is placed in files. The file name is used to access the file. FILE NAME: name.type name - can contain Latin letters, numbers and underscores, no more than 8 characters, type - can contain Latin letters, numbers and underscores, no more than 3 characters. Type or extension may be missing.

Example: docum1.txt lex.bat baza

For convenient access to files, directories are used. A directory can host files and other directories. Thus directories form a tree. Directory Names may be the same as the file names, as well as:. - current directory, .. - parent directory, - root directory. The names of the catalogs end with the symbol (reverse oblique). To access a file not located in the current directory, use full (route) file name. Full file name: drive name route file name

Examples: c: bux ve.prg c: lex lex.exe d: users fox fhg.fox

Directional I / O, filters and communications

Input and output are processes that transfer input and output data. MS-DOS provides a fairly sophisticated software for managing these processes at the request of the user. Data management is carried out using procedures called directional input and output, filters and communications. Using these procedures, the user can organize his line of information transfer. He can orient the flow of information to any device, or to any place in memory, organize information by passing it through a filter, then directing the output stream, for example, to the input of a system program or a command processor.

Standard input and output devices

To enter information in most cases use the keyboard. As a result of most operations, the data obtained is displayed on the screen. Therefore, the keyboard is considered the standard input device, and the screen is considered the standard output device. MS-DOS provides tools to designate non-standard input or output devices. Such devices are called peripheral I / O devices, as they are external to the machine.

Standard device names

When assigning a non-standard device, correctly indicate its name. Each device (such as a printer) has a standard system name specific to that device. The name is reserved even for a dummy device, which is used when testing the system.

Standard device names

Standard name Peripheral device
Aux The first asynchronous communication port
COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4 Asynchronous Communication Ports
CON Keyboard and screen (CONsole)
LPT1, LPT2, LPT3 First, second and third parallel printers
Nul Dummy device (for testing)
PRN First parallel printer

File Name Templates

Example:

fio.txt
mity.txt * .txt
ol.txt

foxproln.exe
foxhelp fox *. *
foxcomp

Standard file types: * .bat- batch files * .exe - boot files * .com - boot files

Other files: * .txt - text files * .doc - text files * .dbf - database file * .sys - system files * .bak - safety file

All MS DOS commands can be divided into internal and external. Internal commands are supported by the MS DOS kernel (command.com) and can always be executed. External commands are executed only if there is a program file on the disk that executes this command. Any program can be considered as an external command.

Basic commands for working with the file system.

DIR Team Displays a list of files and subdirectories in the directory.

DIR [drive:] [route] [file name] [/ P] [/ W] [/ A [[: attributes]]
[/ O [[:] sort order]] [/ S] [/ B] [/ L] [drive:] [route] [file name] Specifies the drive, directory, and / or files to display. / P Pauses output every time the screen is full of information. / W Use compact output format. / A Display files with the specified attributes.

attributes

D directories R read-only files
H hidden files A files ready for archiving
S system files - before the attribute means "not"
/ O List files in the specified order.

the sort order

N In the order of names S in order of size
E In order of extensions D By date and time
G First issue directories - for the reverse order
/ S Display a list of files in the specified directory and all its subdirectories. / B Output files without header and summary information. / L Print in lower case. Switches can be predefined in the DIRCMD system variable.

MKDIR Team Creates a directory.

MKDIR [drive:] route
MD [drive:] route

CHDIR Team Displays the name or changes the current directory.

Chdir [drive:] [route]
Chdir [..]
CD [drive:] [route]
CD [..] .. Indicates that you want to change to the parent directory. Dial CD disk: to find out the name of the current directory on the specified drive. Dial CD no parameters to find out the current drive and directory.

RMDIR Team Deletes a directory.

RMDIR [drive:] route
RD [drive:] route

COPY Team Copies one or more files to another location.

COPY [/ A | / B] source [/ A | / B] [+ source [/ A | / B] [+. ]] [result]
[/ A | / B]] [/ V] source Specifies the file or files to copy. / A Indicates that the file to be copied is an ASCII text file. / B Indicates the file to be copied is a binary file. result Specifies the directory and / or file name for the new file (s). / V Check that new files are written correctly. To add files to each other, specify one file as a result, but several files as a source (use templates or format file1 + file2 + file3).

DEL, ERASE Commands Deletes one or more files.

DEL [drive:] [route] file name [/ P]
ERASE [drive:] [route] file name [/ P] [drive:] [route] file name Specifies files to delete. To delete multiple files, use the / P patterns. Ask for confirmation before deleting each file.

RENAME Team Renames the file (s).

RENAME [drive:] [route] file name1 file name2
REN [drive:] [route] file name1 file name2 Note that you cannot specify a new drive or route for the resulting file.

Disk service

Fdisk command Configures the hard drive for use under MS-DOS.

FORMAT Team Formats a disk for use under MS-DOS.

FORMAT drive: [/ V [: label]] [/ Q] [/ U] [/ F: size] [/ B | / S]
FORMAT drive: [/ V [: label]] [/ Q] [/ U] [/ T: tracks / N: sectors] [/ B | / S]
FORMAT drive: [/ V [: label]] [/ Q] [/ U] [/ 1] [/ 4] [/ B | / S]
FORMAT drive: [/ Q] [/ U] [/ 1] [/ 4] [/ 8] [/ B | / S]
/ V [: label] Specifies the volume label. / Q Perform quick formatting. / U Perform unconditional formatting. / F: size Specifies the size of the floppy disk for formatting (such as 160, 180, 320, 360, 720, 1.2, 1.44, 2.88). / B Allocate space on the formatted disk for system files. / S Copy system files to a formatted disk. / T: tracks Indicates the number of tracks on the disc side. / N: sectors Indicates the number of sectors on the track. / 1 Format one side of the diskette. / 4 Format 5.25-inch by 360K floppy disks in a high-density drive. / 8 Format 8 sectors per track.

CHKDSK Team Checks the disk and displays a report.

Chkdsk [drive:] [[route] file name] [/ F] [/ V]
[drive:] [route] Specifies the drive and directory to scan. file name Specifies files to check for fragmentation. / F Correct disk errors. / V Display the full path and name of each file on disk. Type CHKDSK without parameters to check the current drive.

MS-DOS Commands - Minimum List.

MS-DOS commands are easy to remember if you are fluent (at school level) in English. Most often, a team is an abbreviated phrase.

This snow-friendly format c command: ...

Consider the minimum list of commands that we may need to work in DOS. We will use them to install DOS-based operating systems or search and launch the installed file manager.

MS-DOS system-wide commands.

When you start MS-DOS, you will see a command prompt. By default, it will indicate the root directory of the disk with the installed OS. Suppose the operating system is installed on the C: drive, the prompt will look:

C: >

You can change the current drive by typing the new drive name.

Examples:
d: - sets the current drive D: >
a: - installs the current drive A: >

Change the type of invitation (prompt - English reminder, hint).

Command format:
prompt [text]

Special character combinations:
$ p - current drive and directory,
$ n - current drive,
$ d - The current date,
$ t - current time
$ v - version of DOS,
$_ - transition to a new line,
$ s - space
$ g - the symbol ">",
$ h - delete the previous character.

Examples:
prompt $ p $ g - sets an invitation of the form c: mydir doc>,
prompt $ t $ h $ h $ h $ h $ h $ h $ h $ g - sets an invitation like 15:35>

Display the version of DOS (version - English version).

Command format:
ver

Example:
ver - the version of the operating system used is displayed. For example: MS-DOS Version 6.22

MS-DOS directories commands.

Display a list of files and subdirectories for the specified directory (directory directory, directory)

Command format:
dir [drive:] [path ] [file-name] [options]

Options:
/ p - screen output
/ w - wide format output,
/ s - table of contents of the directory specified in the command and all its subdirectories,
/ b - only file names without header and summary information,

Sorting:
/ on - by name,
/ oe - by extension,
/ od - by time
/ og - first display information about subdirectories,

Examples:
dir - table of contents of the current directory
dir * .exe - information about all .exe files of the current directory

The output of the table of contents to a file or to a printer:
dir> prn - display the table of contents of the current directory on the printer,
dir c: *. txt> txtfiles.txt - create in the txtfiles.txt file a list of all files with the .txt extension located in the root directory of drive c:

Change current working directory (change directory change directory, directory).

Command format:
cd [drive:] [path]

Examples:
cd - go to the root directory of the current disk,
cd exe - go to the exe directory in the root directory,
cd .. - transition to the subdirectory,
cd - reports the current drive and directory

Create directory (make directory create directory, directory).

Command format:
md [drive:] [path ] directory_name

Examples:
md abc - create the abc directory in the current directory,
md c: users my - create the my directory in the users directory in the root directory of drive c:

Move files to another directory. Rename directory (move - English move).

Command format:
move [/ y] file-name directory-name
move [/ y] file-name [drive:] [path] new-file-name

With the / y option, if there are files in the destination directory with the same names as those being transferred, these files are replaced without request. Setting a new name is possible only when sending a single file. For example, the command move * .bac a: *. Old is erroneous.

Examples:
move * .doc d: - move files with the doc extension from the current directory to the root directory of the d: drive
move f1.txt tmp f2.txt - move the file f1.txt to the tmp directory with renaming to f2.txt.

Command format:
move [drive:] [path ] directory-name new-name-directory

Examples:
move a: temp tmp - rename the temp directory of the root directory of drive a: to tmp.

Delete directory with all contents (delete tree - English delete the tree (files or directories)).

Command format:
deltree [/ y] file-or-directory

The deltree command can delete both directories and files. You can use the * and? Characters in a file-or-directory name.

Examples:
deltree temp - delete a directory or file named temp from the current directory,
deltree / y d * - delete from the current directory all directories and files whose name begins with d without asking for confirmation.

MS-DOS commands for working with files.

Display (print) the contents of the file on the screen (type - English type).

Command format:
type filename

Examples:
type t1.doc - displaying the file type t1.doc from the current directory.

Create a text file (copy console- English copy the console (what we type with the keyboard on the screen) to the file).

Command format:
copy con filename

Ctrl + Z, F6 - sign of the end of the file.
Enter - a sign of the end of the line.

Examples:
copy con work.txt - create a text file work.txt in the current directory.

Copy file (copy - English copy).

Command format:
copy file-name1 file-name2
copy file name1 [directory_name2]

In the file names you can use the characters * and?, As well as indicate the name of the drive and path.
The copy command does not copy hidden files and files of zero length.
If a file with the same name as the copy created by the command already exists, then it is replaced.

Examples:
copy x.txt z.txt - copy the x.txt file to the current directory with the name z.txt,
copy a: *. * - copy all files from the root directory of drive a: to the current directory of the current drive,
copy text *. txt a: *. doc - copy from the text subdirectory of the current directory all files with the extension txt to the current directory of drive a :. Files will receive doc extensions.

Use of devices:
copy t1.txt prn - copying the t1.txt file to the printer,
copy t1.txt con - copying the t1.txt file to the monitor screen

Delete a file (delete- English delete).

Command format:
del filename

Examples:
del * .txt - delete all files with the extension .txt from the current directory,
del name.doc - delete a file named name.doc from the current directory

Rename file (rename- English rename).

Command format:
ren file-name1 file-name2

You can specify the drive and path in the parameter file-name1, but not in file-name2.
The ren command does not process hidden files.

Examples:
ren xxx.doc xxx.txt - rename the xxx.doc file of the current directory to xxx.txt,
ren a: *. txt * .doc - rename all files of the current directory on drive a: with the extension .txt to files with the same names and extensions .doс

1.1 Introducing Norton Commander and DOS

The Norton Commander package plays a huge role when working in the DOS system, and it is with it that acquaintance with this system begins.

Применение этого пакета связано с тем, что интерфейс операционной системы ДОС представлен лишь командной строкой, что не очень удобно пользователю. Потому был разработана графическая оболочка, улучшающая взаимодействие с операционной системой.

In addition, he did not lose his significance today, when many users use an improved version of the shell on their computers that allows working with long file names - Volkov Commander. In addition to these shells, there is a more developed version of DOS Navigator or the Far program. This chapter contains introductory information about the operation of the package, including a description of concepts such as a file, directory, logical device, etc. The questions of organizing the package are discussed below, with a detailed description first and then a short description. The Norton Commander software package is often called NC, and we will sometimes use this shortcut.

Start up and getting started. After the computer’s power is turned on, the DOS system (Disk Operating System) starts to boot, the prompt symbol “>” appears on the screen. First, a floppy disk reader will be accessed, and if there is no floppy disk, then DOS will be read from the hard disk. If a floppy disk is inserted into the device, the system will boot from it. If the floppy disk does not contain a DOS system, a message will appear on the screen that the system disk is not inserted. Remove the diskette and click on the Reset button, which is located on the system unit, and the computer will boot up again, but from the hard disk, since the diskette will no longer be in the device.


Often, Norton Commander is included in a special download file called Autoexec.bat. In this case, when the power is turned on after loading, a window will appear, an approximate view of which is shown above.

If this window does not appear on the screen, then to start the program you need to dial NC after the “>“ symbol and press the key Enter. Before proceeding to the description of the program, we introduce some basic concepts.

File is a complete dataset. The word File in translation from English means "folder, dossier." Note that the word “folder” in Windows means something else, namely the directory, which will be described below. Imagine a regular folder with documents. You can pull out a sheet from it and transfer it to another folder, you can make amendments to the information contained in it. Yes, and the folder itself can be moved from one place to another. The operations to correct the information in the file are performed by programs called a “text editor”. Files can contain various types of data, be recorded in different formats, and can be text, photo album, directory, etc.

Each file has a name consisting of two parts: the first is the file name itself, contains up to eight characters, then the separator is a period, then the second part is the file extension, indicating the recording format or file type, consists of three characters. Files themselves with one extension can have different names, a list of possible extensions is given in the appendix. Here are examples of file names: Autoexec.bat, book.doc, a1.txt.

The name can be anything and contain from one to eight characters, including letters and characters: (,), $, #, &,! , ''%, ^, <,>, [,], the extension contains up to three characters. For example, executables may have Com and Exe extensions. The name and extension are separated by a dot. The file name may be without an extension, however, this is undesirable, since the directory names also do not have extensions, therefore, in order not to get confused, it is better to specify the full file name. There are several reserved names on the computer that cannot be used as file and directory names. It:

Aux - asynchronous interface,

CON - the console (the display screen is used for output, the keyboard is used for input),

COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4 - serial ports

LPT1, LPT2, LPT3 - parallel ports

Nul - empty device.

The listed names with any extension indicate the name itself. For example, CON.PRN will match the name CON, since the name contains the standard name known to the system - CON, the extension is ignored. However, PRN1F. DOC will no longer be a standard name, since it is not in the list above.

Any file has four attributes, which can be either turned on or off:

H (Hidden - hidden). Hidden files are usually not displayed. As a rule, these are system files. For example, in the root directory there is a file: I o. sys, which contains the filling of the operating system, standard drivers, routines, program loaders, and so on.

S (System - system). These are system files. The difference from the previous attribute is that they are non-moving, that is, they occupy the same sector on the hard drive. The defragmentation program does not change their location.

A (Archiv - archival). This attribute is set when creating the file and means that no backup was made for this file.

R (Read - Read Only). When the attribute is enabled, information will not be written to the file. Some programs cannot delete this file, others ask for confirmation to delete the file (Norton Commander).

In traditional libraries, books are in different places. To find them, a catalog was invented, in which there are cards indicating the name of the literary source and other data. A directory can be subdivided into subdirectories. For example, the Physics directory may have subdirectories: Mechanics, Nuclear Physics, Electricity and Magnetism, Optics, etc., and the Optics subdirectory, in turn, may contain lower-level subdirectories systematized on other grounds, for example, “Textbooks”, “Reference Materials”, “Problems”, “Popular Science Editions”, etc., and each of them may include an even lower level subdirectory. The same thing happens in a computer. There is a root catalogotherwise called root directorywhich contains subdirectories and files. Subdirectories may also contain subdirectories or subdirectories and files, etc.

The extension is not used in the directory name, and up to eight characters are reserved for the name, which are usually written in capital letters, while file names are written in small letters. Note that the names of files and directories in DOS contain Latin characters, while in Windows you can use the Cyrillic alphabet, as well as have a larger number of characters in the file name.

To find the file, you need to specify way to him. A path is a set of directory names that lead to a file. For example, the library may have the following path: Chemistry - organic - petroleum products, in which we will find the book we need, for example, a reference book on chemistry. Same thing with files. The path contains the names of directories, which are listed using the “” character, called a slash. For example, D OS RAB, where the first character - "" means that the sample is taken from the root directory. Next is the name of the subdirectory (D OS), then the delimiter () and the subdirectory of the D OS directory - RAB. Files in different subdirectories can have the same name, therefore, to determine a specific file, they also indicate the path to it.

In addition, there are several logical devices (or simply drives) They are indicated by Latin characters followed by a colon, for example, A:, B:, C:, D: and so on. Devices A: and B: are attached to floppy disks, the characters are C :, D:. mean partitioning the hard drive. The last disk indicates an optical drive.

Suppose a computer has the following disks: A :, B :, C :, D :, E: and F :. The first two disks (A: and B :) denote a device for reading from floppy disks (hereinafter we will call them simply diskettes), which can be 3.5 and 5 1/4 inches in size. The last drive (F :) stands for an optical disc reader, and the rest (C :, D :, E :) are on the hard drive. As will be shown below, a hard disk can be divided into several logical devices using the Fdisk program. There may be another partition: A :, C :. Therefore, this computer has a floppy disk reader (A :) and a hard disk (C :).

Consider the table shown above. It has two panels (left and right), a command line (C: WINDOWS>) and a tooltip.

Left panel. This panel contains on top the name of the directory whose contents are displayed below (C: WINDOWS). In this entry, “C:” means the logical device located on the hard disk in which the WINDOWS directory is located. The line below the left is again the name of the C: drive. Below is a list of files and subdirectories located in this directory. The first line contains two dots, indicating that there is a directory above, that is, we are currently not in the root directory, but level or levels below. The following is a large list of subdirectories (ALLUSE

1, APPLOG, ... FAVORITES

one). Below is a list of files (144 dat

1 log, 1 stboot bmp, _ delis 32 ini, ... calc exe, cdplayer exe).

Right panel It has the same components as the left, except that it usually displays the contents of another directory. The cursor is located on one of the lines, it differs in color from other lines, that is, if the ordinary color of the symbol is light blue and the background is blue, then on the line where the cursor is located - vice versa (symbols are blue, the background is light blue). At the very bottom of the panel there is status linewhere the description of the cursor location line is given. It indicates the name of the line where the cursor is (..), the type of name (Catalog), date (13/05/02) and the creation time (9:06) of the catalog. If the cursor is on the file name, the information will contain the file name, its size, time and date of creation.

Command line allows you to execute programs and DOS commands. To execute a program, you need to type the name of the program and press the key Enter. If the program is not found and the message: Bad command or file name appears on the screen, it means that either the program name is incorrectly typed, then enter the correct characters and press the key Enter or the system does not find the program in directories that are known to it, then you need to install the current panel on the directory where the program is located, and then try to run it again.

After the basic concepts of the Norton Commander program were introduced, we will show how to work with this package, as well as in the DOS system, using disk formatting as an example.

Initial work in the Norton Commander package.Using the example of creating a system diskette, consider the main functions of Norton Commander and the DOS system. These are: 1. executing DOS commands, 2. moving from one logical device to another, 3. creating a subdirectory, 4. moving from directory to directory, 5. copying files, 6. loading from a floppy disk. The operation in the Norton Commander package is described in more detail in the next chapter. To create a system diskette, you must first format the diskette, and then write the necessary files to it.

Search for a Norton Commander package using DOS commands. Suppose your computer has a Norton Commander package. If it is not running, but is available on the computer, then you need to find it. First, try typing “NC” at the command prompt (for this, click on the START button and then in the panel that appears, click on All Programs, then on the Standard line and then on the command line) and press Enter. If Norton Commander starts up, a table will appear on the screen, an approximate view of which is indicated above.

If the following message appeared on the screen when starting Norton Commander: Bad file or file name, this means that there is no executable file with this name or the path to it is not specified in the Autoexec.bat file.

If Norton Commander is still not found, but the package is on the hard drive, you need to find the path to it, that is, perform the operations described below using DOS commands. To view the contents of the directory, the DOS - “Dir” command is entered. Enter this command and press the key Enter, while a list of directory contents appears on the screen:

Volume in drive C has no label

Volume Serial Number is 4071-14DB

TEMP 05/24/90 3:28 p.m.

DOS 05/24/90 3:28 p.m.

UTIL 05/24/90 3:32 p.m.

HPWTEMP1 05/24/90 4:30 p.m.

WINWORD 05/24/90 16:43

WINDOWS 05/24/90 16:19

BOOK 06/27/98 20:37

DISKA 04/07/98 20:19

COMMAND COM 54 869 05/31/93 6:22

AUTOEXEC BAT 362 05/26/90 18:33

CONFIG SYS 347 05/24/90 15:39

IMAGE BAK 90 624 05/27/90 16:01

IMAGE DAT 90 624 05/27/90 16:01

SCANDISK LOG 458 07/19/98 9:50 p.m.

15 file (s) 237 284 bytes

73 289 728 bytes free

As you can see, on top is the name of the command that was launched. Below is an informational message: Volume in drive C has no label (the volume on device C: has no label). Each volume can have a name, but it is rarely used, so it is almost never used in practice. Volume Serial Number is 4071-14 DB (volume serial number is 4071-14 DB). This information is practically not used when working with a computer, Directory of C: (name of the directory C: ) - the line indicates where the information is viewed. In the example, the C: drive is indicated, that is, the hard drive, the slash "" without characters behind it indicates that the viewing will occur in the root directory. Next is a list of directories, where the name is followed by the symbol "", indicating that it is a directory (directory and directory are synonyms). The numbers indicate the date and time the directory was created.

Root directory may contain different directory names, depending on which software packages are on the computer and which directories have been created for this. However, often by name you can determine what is in the directories. Let's look at an example of what directory names mean.

NC - user name of the directory. As a rule, directory names are the names of packages, systems, documents to which they relate. In our case, the directory contains the Norton Commander package.

Temp - the name of the directory containing temporary files of different programs that are created during the operation of software packages. Typically, when installing a package on a computer, a request is made to the name of the directory in which such files will be stored. You can, of course, create your own name, but it is better not to get confused later, specify a standard name that matches the name of the package to be installed. When the program terminates without errors, temporary files are destroyed. If the program is stopped as a result of unforeseen actions (for example, the power to the computer is turned off), the files are saved. If the next session is completed normally and you do not need to restore anything, the files in this directory can be destroyed, as they may no longer be needed. In general, for other purposes, for example, for storing your files there, it is better not to use this directory so that it can be cleaned and thus free up disk space.

Dos - name of the user directory. As a rule, DOS system is located in directories with this name.

Util - also the name of the user directory where all kinds of utilities are located.

HPWTEMP1 - the name of the directory for the printer. When installing programs that work with the printer, for many of them you need to create your own directory, which will be used by them. The names of these directories may vary, depending on the brand of your printer. The given name in our example belongs to a program that works with a HeL lett-Packard brand 5L laser printer.

WINWORD - name of the directory where the Word package is located.

WINDOWS - the name of the directory in which Windows 3.11 is located. For a Windows 9x system, the root directory will contain its own inherent names for this system.

BOOK - user directory. Used to store typed texts. It is better not to store user files in the root directory, since when deleting files, you can delete an important system file and the computer will not boot when it is turned on. It is better to create subdirectories in which user files will be located, for example, GAME - the directory where the games are located, RABOTA means the directory associated with the work, etc.

DISKA - user directory.

The following are file nameslocated in the root directory. To the right of the file names are numbers that show the size, date and time the file was created. Let's consider the names in more detail.

COMMAND COM - the name of the system file containing DOS commands, such as Dir, Mkdir and others.

AUTOEXEC BAT - batch file, which contains commands and programs that run when the computer is turned on.

CONFIG SYS - a configuration file containing drivers that are loaded into RAM when the computer is turned on.

IMAGE BAK, IMAGE DAT, SCANDISK LOG - names of files that are created by some programs and contain service information that is updated when these programs are launched. It can be programs SCANDISK, IMAGE, NC and others.

The following is statistical information.

15 file (s) 237 284 bytes (15 files 237 284 bytes)

73 289 728 bytes free (73 289 728 bytes free. This information tells you how much free disk space is available).

It often happens that not all information is placed on the screen, then you need to type the Dir_ / p command. The first page of information will be displayed on the screen. A message appears at the bottom of the screen: Press any key to continue. (press any key to continue). You can view the contents of the screen by pressing an arbitrary key, and information will appear on the next screen, and so on.

To view a subdirectory, you must first enter it using the CD (Change Directory) command. In this case, the directory in which you are located will be considered the current directory. For example, if you need to go to a subdirectory one level lower with the name UTIL, then for this you should type “Cd_ UTIL”. The current directory will be the directory with the name “UTIL”. To return to the root directory, type Cd_ .

Type Cd_ to go up one level. where two points indicate a transition to a higher level. Таким образом, можно перемещаться по директориям и просматривать имена файлов поддиректорий при помощи команды Cd и Dir для поиска пакета Norton Commander. Когда будет найден пакет Norton Commander, наберите NC, после чего должна появиться панель этой программы.

Создание системной дискеты. Ниже описывается способ форматирования дискеты при помощи программы Format. Данную команду можно вызвать как при помощи пакета NC, так и без него. Для форматирования дискеты наберите команду при помощи клавиатуры Format_A:_/S , где:

- Format - имя команды, независимо от того, наберете вы ее прописными (большими) буквами или строчными (маленькими), система не делает различий между ними. Можно также набрать FormaT, FoRMAT, FORMAT и так далее, что также будет понятно системе. Далее следует пробел, который здесь и далее мы будем обозначать значком «_».

- А: . Программа Format требует определить параметр, с помощью которого форматируется логический диск. В нашем случае это логическое устройство «A», затем следует пробел.

- /S - ключ программы. Данный ключ обозначает, что гибкий диск - системный, и с него можно загружаться.

Parameters of DOS system commands and programs depend on their name. To get to know them, type: program_name_ /? or for our case Format_ /? . Consider the help for this program in more detail. When this program is executed, a message will appear on the screen:

Formats a disk for use with MS-DOS.

FORMAT drive: [/ V [: label]] [/ Q] [/ U] [/ F: size] [/ B | / S] [/ C]

FORMAT drive: [/ V [: label]] [/ Q] [/ U] [/ T: tracks / N: sectors] [/ B | / S] [/ C]

FORMAT drive: [/ V [: label]] [/ Q] [/ U] [/ 1] [/ 4] [/ B | / S] [/ C]

FORMAT drive: [/ Q] [/ U] [/ 1] [/ 4] [/ 8] [/ B | / S] [/ C]

/ V [: label] Specifies the volume label.

/ Q Performs a quick format.

/ U Performs an unconditional format.

/ F: size Specifies the size of the floppy disk to format (such

as 160, 180, 320, 360, 720, 1.2, 1.44, 2.88).

/ B Allocates space on the formatted disk for system files.

/ S Copies system files to the formatted disk.

/ T: tracks Specifies the number of tracks per disk side.

/ N: sectors Specifies the number of sectors per track.

/ 1 Formats a single side of a floppy disk.

/ 4 Formats a 5.25-inch 360K floppy disk in a high density drive.

/ 8 Formats eight sectors per track.

/ C Tests clusters that are currently marked "bad."

Let's see how to use this information.

C: > format_ /? - program call line with the key “/? ”, Which tells the program to display help information. To execute, press the key Enter.

Formats a disk for use with MS-DOS. - disk formatting for use in MS-DOS.

Following are several types of command formats. For work, you can choose any of them:

FORMAT drive: [/ V [: label]] [/ Q] [/ U] [/ F: size] [/ B | / S] [/ C]

FORMAT drive: [/ V [: label]] [/ Q] [/ U] [/ T: tracks / N: sectors] [/ B | / S] [/ C]

FORMAT drive: [/ V [: label]] [/ Q] [/ U] [/ 1] [/ 4] [/ B | / S] [/ C]

FORMAT drive: [/ Q] [/ U] [/ 1] [/ 4] [/ 8] [/ B | / S] [/ C]

The first word FORMAT denotes the name of the program. Next is the drive: (device) parameter, in the place of which you need to specify the name of the disk with which formatting will take place. This can be A: or B: for floppy disks, depending on which device you intend to work with. If you specify the name C :, D: and so on, the hard disk will be erased with the destruction of all data on it. By the way, on a floppy disk during formatting, all data will also be destroyed, so it must be either clean or contain unnecessary data that can be erased.

After the parameter are the keys, the description of which is given below. All keys are in square brackets. This means that they are optional, that is, they do not have to be specified, for example, dial FORMAT_C: without a key. The symbol “|” means that you can use one of the two parameters of the key, for example, in the record [/ B | / S], you can specify either / B or / S (or neither of them, because they are in square brackets). However, you cannot specify / B_ / S at the same time, that is, they are mutually exclusive. Below is a description of the program keys.

/ V [: label] Specifies the volume label. - Defines the name of the volume. This name will be assigned to the disk volume after formatting.

/ Q Performs a quick format. - performing quick formatting. In this mode, checking for defective tracks is not performed, that is, only the table of contents of the volume is formatted.

/ U Performs an unconditional format. - Performing unconditional formatting, that is, without the ability to recover data after formatting. In other modes, you can try to recover information using the Unformat program.

/ F: size Specifies the size of the floppy disk to format (such as 160, 180, 320, 360, 720, 1.2, 1.44, 2.88). - determines the size of the floppy disk for formatting (such as 160, 180, 320, 360, 720, 1.2, 1.44, 2.88). Floppy disks can be partitioned in different ways, depending on how much data can fit on them. The default value that is used is 1.44 megabytes. If the diskette, designed for 360 kilobytes, is marked as 720, then after formatting, a message appears on the screen that it contains many bad areas. Problems will also arise during storage, as this disk will stop reading over time, and quite soon. In addition, crashes will occur when using a floppy disk on another computer, so formatting the floppy disk to a size larger than intended is not recommended in most cases. However, you can size the diskette to a size smaller than that indicated on the diskette.

/ B Allocates space on the formatted disk for system files. - allocated space on a formatted disk for system files.

/ S Copies system files to the formatted disk. - copies system files on a formatted disk. The difference from the previous parameter is that in this parameter the system files are transferred to the disk, and in the previous mode the files are not transferred, you need to use the Sys program to transfer them. In addition, it creates a zero sector of the zero track in a special way for loading the operating system.

/ T: tracks Specifies the number of tracks per disk side. - / T: tracks. Determines the number of tracks on the disc side. There are two surfaces on a floppy disk, however, this parameter determines the number for one side of the disk and automatically takes the same value for the other side.

/ N: sectors Specifies the number of sectors per track. - / N: sectors. Determines the number of sectors on a track.

/ 1 Formats a single side of a floppy disk. - formats one surface of a floppy disk.

/ 4 Formats a 5.25-inch 360 K floppy disk in a high - density drive. - formats a 5.25 inch 360 kilobyte high-density floppy diskette.

/ 8 Formats eight sectors per track. - Formats eight sectors per track.

/ C Tests clusters that are currently marked "bad." - tests clusters that are marked as “bad”.

C: > are the command line characters below, where you can enter a new command or program.

As a rule, if a command is typed, for example, “Format”, the system searches for files with this name and the extension .exe or .com in the current default directory with the Path command in the Autoexec.bat file and executes it. If there is no program in these directories, then you must first install the current directory in which the desired program is located.

After typing a command, press the key Enter, which tells the system that the line is typed and the command must be executed. The message “Insert New diskette for drive A: and press ENTER when ready” appears on the screen (insert a new diskette into drive A: and press Enterwhen you’re ready). Messages, if they are issued by non-Russified programs, are displayed by the system in English. Insert the floppy disk into the device, then press the key Enter. Information messages will appear on the screen: “Cheking existing disk format”, “Saving UNFORMAT information” (saving information for Unformat. The Unformat command is designed to recover data on a randomly formatted diskette). Verifying 1. 44 M (verified 1. 44 Mb). After that, the formatting check itself begins and the message appears on the screen: / 0 percent completed (0 percent completed) The number starts to increase and when it reaches 100, the process ends and the message “Format complete” is displayed on the screen.

Then the screen will ask: “Volume label (11 characters, ENTER for none)? “(Volume label (11 characters, Enter for nothing)? ) This is a request to name a drive or volume. If it doesn’t matter which name will be used, then press Enter, and the drive name will not be assigned. In practice, the name of the volume is not indicated.

However, when the boot process occurs from DOS distribution floppies, the boot program will request a floppy disk with a specific name. Why is this happening? The fact is that the program will write information to a diskette without confirmation, and when a diskette with the necessary information is inserted, then all the data stored on it can be destroyed. Therefore, when requesting one or more diskettes with a specific name, the likelihood of overwriting the necessary information is reduced. In these cases, when formatting a floppy disk in the volume name query, enter the name you want after first rewriting it from the boot program request.

The following informational message will be a message about the size of the logical device:

1,457,664 bytes total disk space (1,457,664 bytes of total disk space)

1,457,664 bytes available in each allocation unit (1,457,664 bytes allocated per device)

512 bytes in each allocation unit (512 bytes are allocated in each device)

2,847 allocation units available on disk (2,847 allocation units available on disk)

Volume Serial Number is 0244-2203 (Volume Serial Number 0244-2203)

The top line indicates the capacity on disk in bytes. The next line indicates how many bytes can be used on a diskette. It may have bad spots that will reduce the size of the memory available on the disk. An additional line will appear on the screen: 163840 bytes in bad sectors (163 840 bytes in bad sectors). The next line contains information about how large the sectors will be.

Information is not written to a diskette in a row, but using sectors. If a file is written, for example, of five characters, then a sector of 512 bytes is allocated to it, which will contain your text, and then unused space follows. If a file of 700 characters is recorded, then two sectors will be allocated for it, and so on. A floppy disk drive reads or writes the entire sector, which can be anywhere on the disk. When writing to a blank floppy disk, sectors are written in a row, but if five files are already written, and then 600 characters are added to the first one, then the additional sector allocated for the file will be located behind the fifth file, i.e. it will be written in a split.

At the end of the formatting, the screen will ask: Format another (Y / N)? (format another (Y / N) ?. If you want to format another diskette, press the Y key (yes), then the same requests and information messages will follow in a cycle, but for another diskette. The answer N (no) means a failure from continuing to work and exit the program.Of course, after typing Y or N, press the key Enter.

Writing information to the system disk. To create a system diskette, you need to copy the required files to it, such as the Norton Commander program, the Autoexec.bat and Config.sys files, recovery programs, antivirus programs, and other programs.

Norton commander. Of course, you could leave a floppy disk with system files only. However, if there is a failure in the system area of ​​the hard drive and you cannot boot from it, you should boot from the floppy disk, switch to work on the hard drive, call the Norton Commander program and continue working. But it may happen that it is impossible to use Norton Commander, for example, the file structure is corrupted or, if there is a virus, it is impossible to transfer control to programs located on the hard disk. For such cases, it is desirable to have the necessary programs on the floppy disk.

All files in this package have a size of more than 4 megabytes. To burn the entire system, it will take several diskettes, so we will write some of the most necessary files. First of all, this is the main file in which the program is located - Nc.exe, Ncmain.exe, the file with the package messages - Nc.msg, the file with the parameters - Nc.ini. In addition to this, most likely you will also need to edit some file (for example, Autoexec.bat or Config.sys), for which you need to rewrite the editor program, namely the files: Ncedit.exe (program) and Ncedit.msg (editor messages). Only about 450 kilobytes.

The next step is to create a subdirectory on the floppy disk in the logical device A: for the above files. As a rule, it is better to name the directory the name of the package - NC. To do this, you must first switch to another logical device, namely to device A: (or B :), where the diskette is located.

Switch to friend

3. Work in MS-DOS

Our book focuses the reader on working in the environment of the Microsoft Windows operating system, however sometimes you will have to deal with MS-DOS. Therefore, we will consider some of the most useful features of MS-DOS in our opinion. The main thing that you should be able to do in MS-DOS is to use the file system and run the program, in particular, the Microsoft Windows operating system, which starts as a regular program. Much of what will be described in this chapter can (and should!) Be done using Microsoft Windows. However, while Microsoft Windows cannot work on its own without MS-DOS, you should be able to at least run Microsoft Windows.

3.1. How a computer stores data

You need to know how a computer stores data in its memory. First of all, we will be interested in disk memory, since it is programs that are recorded on the disks and it is on the disks that you will save the documents you create or other data. You should be well-versed in this matter, since your data is the most important thing that is stored in the memory of your computer. And if you do not know how to work with data, you may lose the results of many days of work on entering them into the computer's memory.

We have already told you that any information - text, graphic, sound, etc. can be represented by the corresponding number of units of information called bytes. Each byte consists of eight bits. All these bytes are recorded on the tracks of a magnetic disk, similar to how sound in a regular tape recorder is recorded on magnetic tape.

You know that information is recorded on the disc tracks. How does this happen? Data bytes are written sequentially one bit along the disc track. However, recording is performed not in a continuous stream, but in separate blocks called disc sectors. This is due to the fact that information is more convenient to store and process in blocks, rather than in a continuous stream (more convenient for a computer, not for a person). This is one of the differences from a household tape recorder - there sound is recorded on magnetic tape continuously.

There is a numbering system for tracks and sectors on the disk, using which you can set the disk address of any sector. However, the user of a personal computer never works with disk addresses of sectors, as this is extremely inconvenient. Instead, using the MS-DOS operating system, he assigns names to his documents and uses these names when working with them. For example, you can use a text editor to create a letter and write it to disk under the name letter.

Any set of data combined when writing to a disk by a common name will be called a file.

Creating various texts, graphic images or sound recordings, the user assigns names to all this data before writing to a disc. Data will be written to files with the specified names. Subsequently, if the user needs to change the contents of the previously created text, or print the text on a printer, he just needs to remember the name under which this text is stored on disk.

Programs that, like data are stored on disk, are written to files with specific names. Some programs may consist of several files with different names.

When a user wants to run a particular program, he uses the operating system for this, telling her the name of the desired program. A program that processes data stored on a disk asks the user for the name of the corresponding file.

For example, to start the Word for Windows word processor, you must use the name winword.exe. Under this name, a file containing the bulk of the word processor is stored on disk. You yourself can create texts and save them on disk under any names that satisfy some requirements.

The requirements for the file name are as follows: the file name must consist of two parts, separated by a period character. Each part should consist only of letters of the Latin alphabet from A to Z, numbers from 0 to 9 and the following characters: -, _,!, $, ^, #,%, &, <,>, (,), `. The first part of the name may consist of no more than 8 characters listed above, and at least one character must be specified. The second part of the name must contain no more than 3 characters and may be absent. If the second part of the name (called the name extension) is missing, you must specify a dot character in the name. You can not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters in the file name.

The first part of the name, which is usually called simply the file name (which is not entirely accurate), is usually chosen arbitrarily and serves to identify the data recorded in the file. For example, a file with a letter may be named letter.doc, and a file with a description of the program may be called manual.doc. The second part of the file name - the name extension - usually refers to the type of data stored in the file. For example, text files can have the extension doc or txt, and files with graphic images can have pic or img.

Restrictions on the length of the file name (8 characters of the name and 3 characters of the extension) are inconvenient, but there is hope that in future versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system (which will no longer require MS-DOS) they will be removed.

In the meantime, these restrictions remain, they would cause serious problems if only the file name was used to identify the file. If several hundred files are written to the disc, it would be very difficult to find what you need. In addition, it would be difficult to come up with more and more new names for the generated files.

Imagine a card file of all bank customers in which all the cards were poured onto the floor and mixed with a card file of bank employees and added the same information about a dozen bank branches there. Try to find something there! But this is exactly what the computer disk would look like if you only specified the file name when creating new files.

However, usually in the file cabinets, the cards are arranged in cabinets, and in each cabinet there are drawers, where the cards are sorted by various characteristics. For example, in one cabinet there may be customer cards of one bank branch, in another - another, and so on. You can also separate the boxes in which the cards of customers and employees lie.

It would be nice to organize something similar on the computer’s disk so that you can group files by any criterion, rather than stacking them together.

Такая возможность действительно есть и ее обеспечивает операционная система MS-DOS. В этой операционной системе файлы хранятся не просто на диске, а в так называемых каталогах (аналог ящика в шкафу).

Для пользователя это означает, что он может указывать, в какой каталог (ящик) он желает положить свой файл. Пользователь может сам создать на диске столько каталогов, сколько ему нужно. При этом ему необходимо указать имя каталога, которое должно отвечать тем же требованиям, что и имя файла.

Создав каталог, вы можете записать в него файлы. You can also create another directory inside the directory (or several directories), inside this directory and so on. Continuing the analogy with the boxes, we can say that inside the box there may be cards and other boxes, in which, in turn, there may also be cards and boxes.

The system of files and directories on the disk, as well as a set of tools for working with them, is called the file system.

It is said that the file system has a tree structure. This means that for each disk in the personal computer there is one so-called root directory in which the files and other directories are located. The latter, in turn, can also store files and directories.

Since a computer can have several disks, in order to distinguish them, simple single-letter names with a colon are used. In new personal computers, a hard drive for working with floppy disks with a diameter of 3.5 "is designated as A :, hard drive for working with floppy disks with a diameter of 5.25" - as B :. You can also see the opposite designation when the letter A: stands for HMD for floppy disks with a diameter of 5.25 ". If you are buying a personal computer for the first time, ask the supplier what designation is used on your computer. Later we will teach you how to determine this correspondence on your own.

A hard disk drive may not be one, in addition, one hard disk drive can be divided into several parts, which for the user look like separate disks. The letters C :, D :, E: etc. are used to designate NMD.

The root directory on the disk is indicated by the backslash symbol "".

Thus, if you want to write the mytext.doc file to the root directory on the disk, you must specify the drive letter, the root symbol, and the file name. For example, if you want to write a file to the root directory of the C: drive, you should tell the computer the so-called full path to the file, consisting of the drive C :, the symbol "", and the name mytext.doc. The full path to the file will look like this:

If you create a directory called letters on the C: drive and write the mytext.doc file to it, the full path to the file will look like this:

You can create separate directories on the disk and store different types of files in them. For example, in the c: letters directory you can store letters, in the c: manuals directory - various documentation, etc.

Usually, the tree structure of directories on a disk is depicted in the form of a diagram (Fig. 3.1). For clarity, directory names are capitalized, and file names are capitalized.

Fig. 3.1. The tree structure of the directory system.

In the above figure, the root directory of drive C: contains the directories letters, ms_dos, windows, winword, manuals, as well as two files with the names autoexec.bat and config.sys.

In the letters directory there are files named mytext.doc, smart.doc, toyou.doc, as well as a directory called private. In the private directory there are three files - bob.doc, smit.doc, arlen.doc.

Please note that in the directories c: manuals dos and c: manuals windows there are files with the same names - beginners.doc and advanced.doc. These are different files, as they are in different directories.

3.2. About software structure

Before we move on to describing MS-DOS and Windows, we need to learn more about what components the personal computer software consists of, how these components interact with each other, and how they work with data stored on disk as files.

Personal computer software has a hierarchical structure. At the very lowest level are programs recorded in a read-only memory chip (ROM) located on the computer's main board in the system unit. Among these programs there are test programs designed to test the health of a computer, a program for setting up hardware configurations, and programs for the so-called basic input / output system (BIOS). The latter are designed to perform I / O operations on some computer hardware devices.

The next level of software is the operating system level. The operating system itself consists of many programs that are on the computer disk in the form of files. They are partly located in the root directory of the C: drive, partly in a separate directory, which is usually named dos.

The task of the operating system is to, on the one hand, ensure the interaction of the operator with the computer, allowing him to run the necessary programs and work with the file system, on the other hand, to ensure the interaction of the operating system programs and application programs with the basic input / output system, located in ROM.

At the same time, the operating system isolates application programs from direct interaction with computer hardware. This is good, since the hardware of computers produced by different companies is usually different, and without such isolation it would be difficult to ensure the operability of programs on all models of personal computers.

The MS-DOS operating system interacts with the operator using a video monitor and keyboard. The operating system displays all messages intended for the operator in the form of text on the screen of a video monitor, and when the screen is full, all lines shift up, the top line disappears, and at the bottom of the screen there is a place for the next message. This is exactly how teletype once worked, printing messages on a roll of paper. The operator can reply to messages or enter commands for the operating system in the form of short English words or abbreviations such as copy, delete, dir, etc.

To run the program, the operator must tell the operating system the name of the file containing the program or the full path to this file with the drive and directory.

And finally, at the very last level of the software hierarchy are applications, such as word processors or graphic editors. Application programs interact on the one hand, with the operator, and on the other, with the operating system (for accessing files and personal computer hardware).

3.3. Download the MS-DOS operating system

Let's move on to practical work on a personal computer. We must check whether the MS-DOS operating system is installed on the computer’s disk and install it if necessary.

Turn on the computer. After a while, a message from the program recorded in the ROM appears on the screen of the video monitor. The appearance of this message will depend on the manufacturer of the program (the exact type of message can be found in the documentation that comes with the personal computer). For example, if the program recorded in the ROM (BIOS) is manufactured by Phoenix, you can see the following message:

If the BIOS is manufactured by American Megatrends Inc., you will see a message similar to the following:

In the latter case, you can also see the following lines at the bottom of the screen:

From these messages you can determine who owns the rights to the BIOS.

Sometimes before or after this message you can see similar messages from other programs recorded in ROM. The fact is that some controllers of external devices, such as video controllers or NMD controllers, may include ROMs with utility programs.

The message from the ROM of the video controller may look like this:

You can see, for example, such a message from the ROM installed in the disk controller:

In the middle of the screen you can also see the message:

You are prompted to run the computer configuration setup program recorded in the ROM.

To start the configuration setup program, while the above message is on the screen, press the key with or. However, at this stage we do not recommend that you do this. You will learn how to configure your computer later.

Sometimes, after these messages, a table is displayed on the screen of the video monitor that reflects the composition of the hardware installed in the computer. The appearance of this table depends on the computer model. Here is an example:

Now you do not have to understand the contents of this table. We draw only your attention to its two upper lines. From these lines you can determine the correspondence between the hard disk drive (for disks with a diameter of 5.25 "and 3.5") and the letter designation (A: and B :). In this case, the hard disk drive intended for use with 5.25 "floppy disks is indicated by the letter A :.

Next, the computer will attempt to load the operating system into RAM. As we have already said, the operating system can be recorded on a floppy disk or on the hard disk (NMD) of the computer. Usually, at first, the computer tries to boot the operating system from the HDD A :, and if it fails (the corresponding HDD does not have a diskette or a diskette is installed on which there is no operating system), it tries to load the operating system from the HDD.

If the hard drive also does not have an operating system, the computer either stops its work (“freezes”) or displays a message:

After displaying this message, the computer also freezes.

In order to determine whether the MS-DOS operating system is installed on the computer’s disk, you need to make sure that no diskette is inserted in any of the hard disk drives before turning on the computer. In this case, the computer after performing the tests and displaying the messages described above will try to load MS-DOS. If this attempt ends with the computer shutting down, you must install the MS-DOS operating system on its disk.

If you already have MS-DOS on your computer’s disk, you may see the following message:

This message means that the internal clock of the computer is set to January 1, 1985. In the second line of the message, you are prompted to enter a new date in the format MM-DD-GG, where MM means the month number (from 1 to 12), DD means the day number (1 to 31), and GG the year number (last two digits of the year) .

Find the keys on the keyboard that write numbers and the "-" sign. Press these keys to enter the correct date. The characters you enter will appear in the second line after the colon. After entering, press the key with the inscription. This key differs from all others in shape and is large.

In response to the screen, the current time will be displayed:

Just as you set the date, enter the correct value for the time. Use the HH: MM format, where HH stands for hours (0 to 23) and MM stands for minutes (0 to 59). Do not forget to press the key.

After entering the time, the computer (or rather, the MS-DOS operating system) will display the following message:

In some cases, MS-DOS may not ask the operator for the date and time, limiting itself to displaying one line on the screen:

If you ordered the pre-installation of MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows when purchasing a computer, then immediately after loading MS-DOS, the process of loading Microsoft Windows may begin. After a while, you will see this operating system on the screen (Fig. 3.2). Depending on the composition of the software installed on your computer, the appearance of the screen may differ from that shown in this figure.

Fig. 3.2. Microsoft Windows operating system.

If MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows are already installed on your computer, you can go to work in MS-DOS. If your computer’s drive does not have the MS-DOS operating system, you should install it based on the recommendations in the application.


Before you start working in an MS-DOS environment, you should shut down Microsoft Windows. To do this, press the key with the inscription (there are two such keys at the bottom of the keyboard, you can select any one), and without releasing it, press the key (this key is located in the very top row of the keyboard). A window appears on the screen of the video monitor stating that Windows is shutting down (Fig. 3.3).

Fig. 3.3. Microsoft Windows shutdown.

After the appearance of this dialog box, press the key, while Windows will finish the work.

Only after you shut down the Microsoft Windows operating system, you can turn off the computer.

3.4. System prompt and MS-DOS commands

When MS-DOS is ready for operation, it displays the prompt line (Command Prompt) on the screen of the video monitor, which may look, for example, as follows:

To the left of the ">" symbol is the designation of the current MS-DOS drive, in this case, drive C :. If you do not specify a disk name in the full path to the file, the current disk will be used.

The underscore character "_" to the right of the ">" character is the so-called Cursor. It indicates the place on the screen in which the characters typed by the operator on the computer keyboard will be displayed.

Let's try to work with MS-DOS. Turn on the computer. If, after turning on the computer, the MS-DOS system prompt appears on the screen, you can start working. If you ordered Microsoft Windows pre-installation when you purchased your computer, and immediately turned on the power to load this operating system, shut down Microsoft Windows using the key combination and.

After that, you can enter MS-DOS commands. MS-DOS commands are just English words or abbreviations that you need to type on the keyboard. The command entry should be completed by pressing the key.

To correct errors made during input, use the kill key. If you press this key, one character to the left of the cursor will be deleted.

In total, there are dozens of different commands in MS-DOS, but, fortunately, most of them you will not need, at least not at first.

Let's try the action of the ver command, which determines the version of the MS-DOS operating system. Type ver and press:

The following lines will be displayed:

This means that MS-DOS version 6.0 is installed on the drive of your computer. If the operating system version 5.0 or older is installed on the disk, we recommend that you upgrade it to 6.0 using the installation method of the MS-DOS operating system described in the application.

Now our task is to study the commands designed to work with files and the file system.

Examining directory contents

We have already told you that the MS-DOS file system has a tree-like directory structure. We will verify this using the MS-DOS commands.

At the system prompt, enter the dir command:

You will see something like the following on the screen:

The dir command displayed the contents of the root directory of drive C :.

The line "Volume in drive C is MS-DOS_6" means that drive C: is labeled MS-DOS_6. This label is often called a volume label. A volume is a computer disk.

Using the line "Volume Serial Number is 1A78-8EAC" you can find out the serial number of the volume, which in our case is 1A78-8EAC. A serial number is assigned to each volume (disk) by the operating system, and it is never repeated.

However, the most interesting thing for us is displayed after the line "Directory of C: ". The first three lines describe the win, dos, sgnxpro directories located in the root directory of drive C :. To the right of the name in the first three lines you see a word that says that this name is the name of the directory, not the file. Even to the right is the date and time the directory or file was created.

After the directory information, file information is displayed. In the root directory, you see the config.sys, command.com, wina20.386, autoexec.bat files. For each file, its name displays the file size in bytes. For example, a file named command.com has a length of 52925 bytes, i.e. about 50 KB.

In our case, the directory names do not have an extension, and the file names do not. Your computer may have files and directories with different names, but the overall appearance of the screen as a result of the dir command will be approximately the same.

MS-DOS commands may have parameters. Parameters are words or numbers that are typed after a command.

Try entering the dir dos command (do not forget to press the key after entering the command):

This command will show you the contents of the dos directory located in the root directory of the current drive:

The line "Directory of C: DOS" indicates that the contents of the dos directory located on the C: drive are displayed.

You will see more files in the dos directory of your computer than in our example. Most likely there will be so many files that their names will not fit on the screen. Lines with file names will run before your eyes and you will not have time to read anything.

The display can be temporarily paused by pressing the key

(this is the rightmost key in the top row of the keyboard). You can continue issuing if after the key

press any other key.

If working with a key

it will seem uncomfortable to you, try to enter the following command (further in similar examples we will not show the cursor, since it is not related to the command):

This command displays the contents of the dos directory more compactly:

Lines [.] And [..] denote, respectively, the current directory (in our case, dos) and the directory in which the current directory is located (in our case, this is the root directory of the C :) drive.

From the last lines, you can find out that there are 11 files in the dos directory that together occupy 329157 bytes of disk space. In addition, it can be seen that the disk still has 1556480 bytes of free space, which can be used for new files.

If in response to the dir command you see the following in the last line:

this means that there is no more free space on the disk and you need to delete old or unnecessary files. Later you will learn how to do it.

Current drive and current directory

MS-DOS has two important concepts - the current drive and the current directory.

Если в команде для MS-DOS имя диска не указывается, все операции выполняются над текущим диском. После загрузки операционной системы текущим является тот диск, с которого выполнялась загрузка. Если MS-DOS была загружена с жесткого диска, сразу после загрузки текущим будет диск C:. Если MS-DOS загружалась с дискеты, текущим будет диск A:. В последнем случае системное приглашение MS-DOS будет выглядеть следующим образом:

Вы можете легко изменить текущий диск, если в ответ на системное приглашение MS-DOS введете имя нужного диска (не забудьте ввести двоеточие и нажать клавишу ). Вставьте в дисковод A: любую дискету (например одну из дискет, на которой записана MS-DOS), и введите команду:

На лицевой панели НГМД загорится сигнальный светодиод и через некоторое время на экране появится системное приглашение:

If before you enter this command, you forget to insert a diskette, a message appears on the screen:

You can insert a floppy disk into HDD A: and press the key with the letter (Retry), or refuse to change the current disk by pressing the (Fail) key. In the latter case, a message appears on the screen:

Enter the c: command to make the C: drive current.

If after changing the current drive to A: issue the dir command, you will see the contents of the root directory of drive A: on the screen. Of course, all of the above is true for drive B :, as well as for all other drives available on your computer.

But how do you know how many drives are installed on your computer?

Disks are indicated by letters of the Latin alphabet from A to Z inclusive, and it does not matter which letters - capital or lowercase - you use for this. In order to find out which disks are in your computer, you can try to make them all current in turn, starting from drive D: (there is a more convenient way, but for now this one will do). If you try to make a non-existent disk current, the following message appears on the screen:

In this case, the current disk will remain the same.

Now you know how to change the current drive and we will deal with directories.

You probably know what the current directory is. This is the directory in which MS-DOS will search for the file if the directory name is not specified explicitly. The path, for example, on drive C: in the dos directory is a file called edit.com. The full path to the file is specified as follows:

If you omit the drive name, MS-DOS will search for the file on the current drive, while it will look for it in the dos directory, which is located in the root directory of the current drive:

If you specify neither the drive name nor the directory, MS-DOS will search for the file on the current drive in the current directory:

You can specify a drive and not specify a directory. In this case, MS-DOS will search for the file on the specified drive in the current directory:

The fact that the current disk and the current directory exist in MS-DOS greatly simplifies working with files, because if you constantly work with the contents of one directory, you can make the current directory and the disk on which this directory is located. In the future, you can specify only file names.

Immediately after loading MS-DOS, the root directory of the drive from which the boot was performed becomes current. If MS-DOS was loaded from the hard drive, the current directory will be C: .

You can use the cd command to change the current directory. For example, after entering the dir command, you saw that in the root directory of drive C: lies a directory called dos. You can make the dos directory current if you enter the command in response to the MS-DOS system prompt:

Enter this command. The appearance of the system prompt will change:

Now after the disk name in the system prompt, you see the name of the current directory.

Try issuing the dir command again now. You will see the contents of the current directory (since the dir command was issued without parameters), but now the contents of the dos directory will be shown, and not the root directory of the C: drive from which MS-DOS was loaded:

If the dos directory had another directory, for example, with the name temp, it could be made current with the cd temp command:

By issuing cd commands, you can go up the branch of the directory tree from the root directory to the end of the branch (or go down if you like it more). But how to move in the opposite direction?

Note the following two lines that are displayed on the screen with the dir command:

The first line is the "middle name" of the current directory. You can use it to link to the current directory. The second line indicates the directory where the current directory is located. For example, in our case, for the dos directory, a line with the name ".." means a link to the root directory of drive C :.

If you need to go back along the branch of the directory tree, you can enter the following command:

After entering this command, you will again find yourself in the root directory of the C:> drive, as you can see by the appearance of the MS-DOS system prompt:

If the directory nesting depth is large, and you have reached the very end with the cd command, you can return to the root directory of the disk using the following cd command:

As a practical task, we suggest that you study the contents of the disks and diskettes of your computer using the cd and dir commands.

Create and delete directories

You can create a new directory in the current directory using the md command. Make the root of the C: drive current, for example, using the following command (in the command examples, we will no longer show the MS-DOS system prompt, since it is not related to the commands):

The first command makes the C: drive the current; the second makes the root directory the current directory.

This command will create a directory called testctlg in the root directory, which you can verify by issuing the dir command.

If you receive the message "Directory already exists" when creating the directory, this means that the directory with the same name already exists in the current directory. You cannot create two directories with the same name in the same directory.

To remove a directory, use the rmdir command. As a parameter, this command should specify the name of the directory to be deleted, for example:

The rmdir command can only delete an empty directory. This is easy to verify if you try to delete, for example, the dos directory containing various files. You will receive the following message in this case:

View file contents

In MS-DOS there is a command that allows you to view the contents of files on the screen of a video monitor. This is the type command. As a parameter to this command, specify the path to the file whose contents you want to view.

Let's try to view the contents of a file. Almost every computer on the C: drive contains a file called autoexec.bat in the root directory. The purpose of this file, we will not discuss now. Enter with

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